Women-the mighty angels

Women and her role:

Women play a crucial role in the development and the quality of life in the family and the society. They are the explorers of the nation. Women nowadays explore the world and exhibit their skills in all the fields. During olden times, women were involved and engaged only in certain fields of work and men excelled in everything. But now, everything has changed. Women and men equally take part and excel in all kinds of fields.

Women- the mighty angels

Though we may say that both men and women are treated equally at the workplace, it doesn’t imply at home. As a mother, as a wife, she takes up more responsibilities than men. She sacrifices her contentment for the sake of her family. In olden days, when women were bound to stay at home with no education offered, she took care of all the family members despite her problems. Now, she does the same at home and she also works hard at the workplace.

Woman at home:

Psychologists report that women are more depressed when compared to men. Men are the major source of income for a family. So he puts all his efforts and focuses mainly on his work. Whereas women had to focus on their work, their family and hence she gets exhausted. She barely gets some time. It leads to depression. Men wanted to share their financial issues with her but are not ready to share the household chores with her. That is why we proclaim it as ‘the male dominated society’. Maybe most of the things have changed, but not this issue at home. So, she over strains herself in managing both the home and the workplace.

She plays the role of mother, wife, daughter, cook, artist, caretaker, administrator in a family. Though she gets exhausted carrying all the daily chores, she is more than happy to do it. She never complaints and never expects someone to replace her. But, it is every man’s duty to help the woman in her chores.

She is actually the ruler of the home. But she never proclaims it. A ruler is not someone who orders or commands people. A ruler is a person who leads for the betterment of their territory. In that case, a woman is the ruler of the home.

They have occupied a noble position in family and society. However, social evils against women are still a challenge. We can claim ‘Women freedom’ only if all the social problems faced by her come to an end. She is an angel to earth. Treat her like a queen and not the maid of the house.

Written by R.Varsha

http://neelakalam.com/author/Varsha/

An episode of Hathras – Has a lesson been learnt?

Consummation- the very word defines as a completion. In the episodes of marriage, consummation comprehends it as a completion through sex. India, which is a magnificent seat, of orthodox principles, has a lineage of cluster family. The elders of the family found it bashful even to speak or utter the word, intercourse or sex, in public. They would even live a monotonous life once they cross a mean age. In recent years, this collocation is lost.
The daily that we skim through has news of nothing but sexual assault, molestation, gang rape and so on. The thing with such a secluded or a private affair has been drifted. To be more precarious, it is thrust. What happened in Hathras? Where are we heading?


Where are we heading?


A decade ago it was Jyoti Singh or the case of Delhi gang rape, and now it is the case of Hathras. The incident throws light on the misappropriate handling of the innocent damsels in their hamlets. ‘ Black lives matter’ gained momentum a few months back in the US. Anecdotes happening around the small hamlet ‘Hathras’ will shoot ‘Dalit lives matter’ into the limelight. It keeps me locked in disdain when rape statistics are looked into.

Three thousand four hundred eighty-six cases of rape against women ( Dalit minors) in 2019.
Rajasthan has the highest number of rapes against Dalit women (554) then followed by Uttar Pradesh(537) and then by Madhya Pradesh(510)
Rate of rape against Dalit women is the highest in Kerala – 4.6 (per lakh population), followed by Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan( both by 4.5)
Only 32% conviction rate of offences under POA act (prevention of atrocities act), The scheduled castes and tribes.


Riya Singh, part of the core leadership of collective Dalit women, fight, briefs on NCRB figures about assaults on Scheduled caste Women and minors amounting to 3366 in 2019 is only the tip of an iceberg. The stumbling blocks sprawling before them in each step to the process of justice are not paltry-sized but little humongous.


First, one being the hurdle in filing the FIR. In 99% cases, the police hands one an acknowledgement of a non-cognisable offence instead of an FIR under the scheduled caste and scheduled Tribe (POA) act. Extra pressure is needed in each case to file an FIR and the next being, getting the FIR done under the accurate sections of the POA act and not just the IPC.


Secondly, the village network compliant to the existing caste core in the village is a big problem. Khap panchayats play the role of local supreme courts. When someone tries to file an FIR, the Upper Caste people reach the police station, changing the testimony of the woman before being written down. In other words, the woman is settled for a compromise. Victims are often on the receiving end of the slanders by the police officers too.


Thirdly, they don’t involve in supplicating the whole act, or they won’t instance the right sections. This evolves that if the trial reaches court and if not under the POA act, then the victims won’t get the full benefit. It means that these cases are meant to go to exclusive special courts, and the survivor’s family have entitled the compensation and travel allowances. The investigation is also meant to b completed within 60 days.


Lastly, there is a delay in the compensations to be received after the FIR registered. They too receive it after hundred of follow-ups and door knocks. There have been many cases were court-appointed lawyers don’t tell survivors their court dates, and even sometimes they have no idea who her lawyer even is.


The Hathras case may share outrage and protests with Nirbhaya, but constitutes a sheer difference in the administrative response as well as its possible impact. What has been learnt?
Strict adherence to the procedures laid under the POA act is essential. Instead of such outrages, the Upper caste folks should sensitise their communities and build a lively public discourse on affirmative policies like reservation that assures our fair representation within systems and right away withdraw their biases towards the POA act.

Written By – Ramya Sree. D

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BERMUDA TRIANGLE DISAPPEARANCES

WHAT IS BERMUDA TRIANGLE?

Bermuda Triangle, section of the North Atlantic Ocean off North America in which more than 50 ship sand and 20 airplanes disappeared. The reason behind this is unknown.

The area, whose boundaries are not agreed upon, has a vaguely triangular shape. The Atlantic coast of the Florida panhandle (in the United States), Bermuda, and the Greater Antilles marked it.

Reports of unexplained occurrences in the region date to the mid-19th century. Some ships completely abandoned for no apparent reason; others transmitted no distress signals and were never seen or heard from again.

Who discovered Bermuda Triangle?

Bermuda Triangle
Bermuda Triangle

The first person to report about Bermuda Triangle was Christopher Columbus. He wrote in his journals that inside the triangle, the ship’s compass stopped working. He also saw a fireball in the sky. It was author Vincent Gaddis, who coined the phrase ‘Bermuda Triangle’ in a 1964 magazine article.

Hundreds of people and numerous boats, ships and planes have disappeared inside this triangle.

  • Some attribute it to Aliens who capture human beings for research and also said that some research is carried out by Atlantic Undersea Test and Evaluation Center (AUTEC), the American naval base on the Bahamas island.
  • Who have flown over the Bermuda Triangle, simply call it a myth as they say, that ships and planes behave in the Triangle in a same way, they behave everywhere else in the world.

FEW FACTS ABOUT THE BERMUDA TRIANGLE

Fact no 1

The Bermuda Triangle is not small. In fact, it is quite large and covers an area of 440,000 miles of sea. This is larger than the combined area of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh & Maharashtra of India.

Fact no 2

The Bermuda triangle is certainly not fixed and its effect can be experienced outside of the triangle too.

The disappearances are ascribed to UFO’s and alien activity, city of Atlantis lost under the triangle, and various other technical, natural and geographical reasons.

Fact no 3

Whenever any plane or ship disappears in the Triangle, its debris cannot be found. The reason behind this is that Gulf Stream runs near the triangle, which quickly gets rid of the debris.

  • ​Due to strange magnetic anomalies which are in various locations around the world. There is a similar triangular area that is a no go zone declared by the Japanese govt. These areas have disappearances repeatedly
  • Ivan T. Sanderson asserts that twelve vortices (famously, the Bermuda Triangle) situated along particular lines of latitude: five of the vortices are on the same latitude to the south of the equator; five are on the same latitude to the north. The other two are the north and south poles.

Strange magnetic fields from the bottom of the ocean causing compass to malfunction, pirates capturing ships, explosive cargo destroying vessels etc. Another possibility is underwater earthquakes. Scientists have actually observed a great deal of seismic vibrations taking place in the Bermuda triangle area and under the seafloor.

The triangle is responsible for the loss of at least 1,000 lives along with some 75 planes and hundreds of ships within the past 100 years.

Scientists have now claimed that hexagon

I saw this explanation on TV.

The triangle sits above a (several) natural gas fields.

  • Boats: Boats, ships, those floating things are supported by the weight of water displaced. When a few tons of gas released the new water-gas mixture can cannot support the ship. As a results, it sinks.
  • Yards of slit covered all the evidence of sinking.
  • Airplanes: When the gas passes through the soil, water, and air it simulates rubbing a, e.g., rubber rod on fur. It picks up some electrical charge. Airplanes’ instruments “confused” as the airplane passes “current” (charged gas). The airplane may yet survive, but when there is sufficient natural gas to displace the oxygen necessary to keep the engines turned on, the engines turns off (stall). Then the plane crashes and it sinks. Then the silt covers the airplane.

 Hey, here is one minute summary ; though the TV show was over an hour.

 Regarding this “death triangle”, various theories and hypotheses proposed to try to support and explain these mysterious phenomena.

Such as “infrasound vibration theory”, “Haiti bridge theory”, “natural gas hydrate theory”, “pyramid magnetic field theory”, “magnetic declination angle anomaly theory, Skeptic’s Theory, unusual theory, Human error, Freak waves, strange waves and hurricanes, A Hutchison effect, Gulf stream, Methane gas theory, The Sargasso Sea etc., all have their own schools and try to justify themselves.

Thousands of rumors are present related to Bermuda triangle… however no scientific proof is present to completely mark one as rumor as true while other as false. So the debate about Bermuda triangle’s being cursed or it being a land of aliens or something else, is still inconclusive.

By M. Hema Sri

Why is Phase-3 of Vaccine Trial Complicated?

Written by Inshaa Siddiquee

The Covid-19 outbreak has proved to be one of the most challenging phases in our lives. However, many companies are racing towards developing a safe and effective vaccine to protect against Covid-19. Moreover, Phase 3 trials of investigational vaccines are underway.

How are vaccines developed?

New vaccines are tested in clinical trials to determine that they are both safe and effective. After the successful completion of clinical trials, they get licensed in US.

A lot of testing is done before a vaccine ever gets tested in humans. There is a long process of development in the laboratory.

The vaccine is firstly tested on various animals like mice, rabbits, hamsters and primates that have similar human physiology. After which their responses and reactions are studied. Because it is unclear whether these vaccines will work or not, a very structured set of clinical trials begins.

If the vaccine has proven itself it enters the Phase-1 studies.

What Happens in clinical trials?

The phase involves healthy volunteers who are informed about how and why these vaccines are being tested and also about a new potential harm. This process is called Informed Consent taken place before entering the trial.

The clinical trial comprises of 4 phases.

PHASE -1

PHASE -1 includes human pharmacology and safety. Testing takes place among a small group of people (roughly 30-60). It’s given in small doses and monitored to see if it is safe and well-tolerated.

However, a drug’s side effects might be subtle or restricted to a few people. In reference to this Phase-1 trial are not expected to identify all the side effects

PHASE -2

Phase-2 includes testing with a large group of people around 100-300 to determine the safe dosage range to get the desired response.

In reference to Covid-19, AstraZeneca vaccine had been put at halt at this stage. The pause was due to a harmful side effect reported by a volunteer in US who had been injected with the vaccine.

Nevertheless, promising vaccines that are safe and generate strong immune response move into phase-3 trials.

PHASE-3

Phase-3 is a larger version of phase-2 trial. It is held in multiple locations to capture the demographic variability in the population. It a complete randomized and double-blinded trial. Half of the volunteers are given the vaccine, whereas the other half are given placebo (salt water). As the process is double-blinded, neither the participants nor the study staffs are aware about who is getting which type of injection.

Furthermore, the study compares the rate of infection and placebo groups. It tells us whether the vaccine will be able to prevent the infection and if so, if it is effective enough in all of the volunteers or only a sub-group. Along with the safety data that is collected in all phases of vaccine studies, this efficacy data is used by the FDA to decide if the vaccine should be licensed.

In the case of Covid-19, there is an occurring trial of the US-MRNA vaccine.

The CEO of Moderna, Stéphan Bancel said, “The phase-3 for vaccine is a typical clinical trial, it’s a very large one of 30,000 people, 15,000 will receive the vaccine, whereas 15,000 will receive placebo and we will be able to see through data what is the safety of a vaccine and what is the efficacy of a vaccine”.

Across Europe, Brazil and other locations the Oxford vaccine is likely to be tested in the same way.

PHASE-4

A vaccine which clears all the phases is further sent for approval and license. After which the entire company is devoted to creating the vaccine in bulk, safely without it degrading or losing potency.

Post marketing studies delineate additional information, including the treatment’s risks, benefits, and optimal use. As such, they are ongoing during the drug’s lifetime of active medical use.

Marital Rape – A Taboo deemed as a Duty and Cloaked in the name of Culture

Written By – Ishita Singh

Marriage between a man and a woman in India implies that both have agreed to sexual intercourse. The concept of Marital rape elucidates as an act of sexual intercourse without one spouse’s consent. It also considers as a form of Domestic Violence, Sexual Abuse and a Heinous Crime.

Forced sexual intercourse between couple perceives as a Criminal Offence in almost every country. But India has not yet criminalized marital rape.

In absence of a law on Marital rape, there is no exact data on number of cases of marital law . According to a research, 1 in 3 men admit to raping their wives. A woman is raped by her husband every three second. This number has slightly increased during the lockdown.

The definition of Rape codified in Section 375 of The Indian Penal Code (IPC),1860,

It includes all forms of sexual assault involving non-consensual intercourse with a woman with the help of six descriptions. The exceptions is “Sexual Intercourse by a man with his own wife, IS NOT A RAPE”. This law amended in 2013 but no action was taken against framing a law on Marital Rape.

It also violates Article 14 and Article 21 which promises Right to Equality and Right to Life and Personal Liberty of the Indian Constitution.

Marital Rape also converts as a form of Sexual Abuse and Domestic Violence victims can take refuge under the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005. It defines sexual abuse as ‘Any conduct of sexual nature that abuses, humiliates, degrades or violates the dignity of the woman’. It considers marital rape not as a form of rape but as a form of sexual abuse.

Rape by Husband Is Not A Rape?

Most of the people believe if a law on marital rape amend women will misuse it. But all are assumptions only.

In the landmark case of Vishakha v. State of Rajasthan, The Supreme Court extended this right of privacy in working environments also. Similarly, we can translate that there is a right of privacy to get into a sexual relationship even in married couples.

We are living in 21st Century. The era of legal reforms and revolutions. it is of requisite importance to take steps against marital rape. That would be a possible step towards advancing the way of actual development.

Despite being a developing country, such an improvement is far from the real world. There are some differences between rape and marital rape. Though they are both heinous crimes which could scar the victim, Indian judiciary are not ready to take action against marital rape.

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