All-Women Crew from India Creates History in Railways and Airways

Women empowerment has become one of the most common topics of discussion in every philanthropic activity. It is true that women need extra efforts in society to achieve some goals that are comparatively easy for men. But more than that, they require motivation. They need examples so that they could follow the same path to success.

Enough talking is done, let’s get on the topic. Two Government-owned organizations, Indian Railways, and Air India have recently made history with an all-women crew driving a train and flying a plane over the north pole. Let’s go through their stories that may set an example for thousands of women in years to come.

Railway’s Story :

On January 6, 2021, a 3 women crew, Akanksha Ray, Udita Verma, and Kumkum Suraj Dongre, piloted a goods train from Mumbai division in Maharashtra to Gujarat. This incident was historic as this is the first time an all-women crew driven and piloted a goods train in the Western Railways. Akanksha Ray, who is an MBA graduate from Indore, was the goods guard, while Kumkum Suraj Dongre was the loco pilot, and Udita Verma was the assistant loco pilot.

The journey was not very long, only from Vasai in Palghar district of Maharastra near Mumbai to Vadodara. However, it is quite a historic train journey for even the crew themselves. Ray believes that this will break the shackles for many Indian women to take up such jobs that have been historically performed by men only.

Air India’s Story :

The other historic move was that Air India made its longest direct route flight from San Francisco in the US to Bengaluru in India, covering 16000 km and also flying over the North Pole. But what made this incident far apart was that all 4 crew members were women. Captain Zoya Aggarwal said that this is the shortest route between the two cities and will save 10 tonnes of fuel.

This 17-hour long journey is also the longest direct flight journey in the world. It was indeed one of the greatest achievements of Indian aviation history. Flight AI176 took off at 8:30 pm and reached its destination at 3:07 am. Apart from Zoya were Captain Papagari Thanmai, Captain Akansha Sonaware, and Captain Shivani Manhas all pilots of the plane.

Conclusion :

Today’s success sets the future tomorrow. It is necessary for someone to step up for participation for the others to follow in the future. That is why every first have a unique significance that the others don’t have. These 7 women have created history today, at the same time have opened doors for many other aspirants to follow in their footsteps. Through hard work, determination and passion, and some intelligence, they have proved once again that being a woman does not stop them from doing what they really can.

Written by – Himadri Paul

The Indian history: Quit India Movement

Written by Anshika Yadav

This is an essential part of the history of independence of India, which should be known by every Indian Citizen. Quit India Movement was one of the impactful historical movements of India, which led path of independence in 1947.
This movement is also known as, ‘Bharat choro Andolan‘.

• It was propelled at the Bombay meeting of the All Indian Congress Committee (AICC) by Mahatma Gandhi on 8 August 1942.

• The protest started to demand an end of British rule in India

• The primary part of the movement was peaceful with demonstration and parades. There was a peaceful protest until Mahatma Gandhi’s discharge.

Second half of the protest was full of attacks including setting fires on workplaces and government structures.

• The last phase of the movement was set apart on September 1942, where mobs are getting together and bombings in government spots of Mumbai and Madhya Pradesh.

• In September 1942 the final phase of the movement was noticed.

• Rebels were arrested and tortured, and over sixty thousand people were jailed.

• At last India got autonomy in 1947.


Also known as August Kranti movement, here Gandhiji gave a slogan to the people, “Do or Die, we shall either free India or die in the attempt, we shall not live to see the perpetuation of our slavery.”

Gandhiji’s ideology of non-violence and determination was so great and inspiring.
It was his proper steps and ideas which helped and quickened the inclination for freedom.

He was always committed to making India, independent. An extraordinary strategist of 20th century motivated by self-dependent rule.

Quit India movement was one of the renowned struggles of our history, and people praise this day by paying tribute to political dissidents with the occasion or National speeches.

Jawaharlal Nehru became the first Prime Minister of free India.

We are the citizens of free India because of the continuous efforts and brave sacrifices of our freedom fighters which led to this revolutionary movement.

Proud to be an Indian is the most correct way to put all our love and respect for the great real heroes of our country. And we must always be responsible towards the County we are part of and add to its pride.

The Mandala Theory: A brief overview

Kautilya’s Arthashastra is considered to be one of the most important texts in the sphere of politics and diplomacy. This ancient Indian political thought was written around 325 BC and was published in Shama Shastri in the year of 1909. Chittaranjan Roy mentions that the book was divided into 32 divisions based on paragraphs. Moreover, the book has 15 adhikaranas (sections) with 180 prakaranas (sub-sections). Kautilya’s ideology makes it absolutely clear that he was probably not the first one to study the subjects and statecraft in such a detailed manner. Moreover, he goes on to mention that by compiling the thoughts of the previous masters with regards to the polity and adding his own thoughts, he developed his own ideology that saw protection and maintenance of sovereignty as one of the fundamental functions of the king. Also, protecting dharma and territory was the fundamental function of the state. Moreover, while talking about society, he was aware of the caste hierarchy and rampant social inequalities present in society. He subjected the Brahmanas to capital punishment for doing something wrong and allowed the Shudras to testify in court. Thereby, raising the social status of the Shudras. Kautilya also laid down strict rules with regards to children, women, workers, artisans, poor people, etc. of the society. This clearly shows how Arthashastra manages to reflect the complex realities of society. Kautilya’s Arthashastra manages to come up with scientific management of the statecraft and lays down ideas with regards to the management of the complex societal problems. 

One of the most splendid contributions to political thought by Kautilya has been the Mandala theory. This theory has given rise to questions from around the world about its relevance in the contemporary political scenario. Moreover, it is believed that the foundations of Mandala theory were laid down for the first time in the writings of Manu (a lawmaker) which soon formed the basis of India’s foreign policy (in ancient India). Roy suggests that evidence of the theory is available in the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. The fact that war was a part and parcel of life was realized by the Indian political writers and keep them under control several measures of maintaining a balance of power between states was suggested. This particular theory found in the writings of Smriti and Niti writers was based on this idea. Moreover, it is imperative to mention that a more comprehensive view of the theory was found in the writings of Kautilya thereby proving itself to be something that comes to the aid of even those belonging after Kautilya. 

According to Kautilya, a king who understands the worth of diplomacy can emerge as the conqueror of the world. The basic premise of his Mandala theory concentrates on the actions of the Vijighisu (the primary king), his friends, and his a friend’s friend. These emperors form the three primary kings constituting circles of the state. Roy mentions that each of these kings contains the five elements of sovereignty whereas a circle of states consists of eighteen elements. Moreover, he made clear the fact that every immediate neighbour was the enemy of Vijighisu or the conqueror should be aware and wary of the actions of such a date. In accordance with this calculation, the state after the enemy would naturally be an ally of the conqueror (enemy’s enemy a friend). It also should be mentioned that  Kautilya divided the Vijighusi’s kingdom into front and rear. 

The Vijighisu: Kautilya considers him to be the conqueror or the king who holds the central position. Such a king must have the ambition to go on conquest and possess the potential to grow. However, it must be noted that there can be n number of Vijighisu if they possess the strength and the potential of one as prescribed by Kautilya. 

The main elements of the Mandala theory regarding kingdoms in front of the Vijighisu are:-

  • The Ari: The immediate neighbour is the Ari or the Enemy. As mentioned above, every immediate neighbour is considered the Enemy. The Ari is the Enemy in the front.
  • The Mitra: The King after the Ari is the Mitra or the friend. According to Kautilya, the enemy’s enemy is the ally. Hence, this emperor is an ally of the Vijighisu.
  • The Ari Mitra: This is the ally of the Enemy and the Enemy of the Friend. Thus, naturally, this emperor is also the enemy of the Vijighisu.
  • The Mitra Mitra: The state adjacent to Ari Mitra is the Mitra Mitra. This state is the friend of both Mitra and the Vijighisu. However, it is the enemy of Ari Mitra and Ari
  • The Ari Mitra Mitra: The kingdom is a natural enemy of the Vijighisu and is aligned with its enemies. 

Hence, it must be noted that the Vijighisu, Mitra, Mitra Mitra are allies; whereas the Ari, Ari Mitra, and the Ari Mitra Mitra are allies and enemies of the Vijighisu

The main elements of the Mandala theory regarding kingdoms in the rear of the Vijighisu are:-

  • The immediate neighbour is the Paarshnigraaha. This the enemy in the rear of the Vijighisu.
  • The ally in the rear of Vijighisu is known as the Akranda
  • The ally of the rearward enemy is the Paarshnigraahasara
  • The ally of the rearward ally is the Akrandasara

Hence, in the rear, we have the Paarshnigraaha and the Paarshnigraahasara as the enemy; whereas the Akranda and the Akrandasara are the allies. 

Apart from this, there are two other kings, namely, the Madhyama who is the indifferent one and the intermediary; and the Udaasina who is neutral. 

  • The Madhyama king is said to occupy a position of strength on the basis of which it can choose to either help the Vijighisu or his enemy Ari or not help at all. Thus, this king occupies a very important position in Kautilya’s Mandala. Also, this king lies close to both. 
  • The Udaasina lies beyond the territory of the kings. This kingdom is powerful enough to help the conqueror, the enemy, the Madhyama together or individually. This kingdom can also resist each one of them. 

Moreover, to enhance ones political foothold, Kautilya prescribed 6 methods off foreign policy, namely, Sandhi, Vigraha, Asana, Yana, Samsraya, and Dvadibhava

Taking into consideration the various aspects presented by Kautilya with regards to polity, it can be said that this theory is still relevant in the sphere of International Relations and politics. Developing a value-free realist model regarding politics much earlier than Machiavelli or any other scholar of the sort, his work brought forward the sheer brilliance and intelligence with which politics was observed. Although his idea can be found in some form or the other in modern-day diplomacy and politics, several scholars have pointed out some of the disadvantages of the theory. 

  • Firstly, scholars have pointed out that his concept of how one’s immediate neighbour is the enemy may not be always true depending on the contemporary situation. 
  • Secondly, his writings are ambiguous with regards to Udaasina and Madhyama. Although these kings have been given a detailed description, their role in the political process has received little to no attention. 
  • Thirdly, Kautilya’s model has been claimed to be of self-destructive nature. This theory explains how the king will embark on a never-ending military journey and will be always embroiled in conflict. Hence, equilibrium is greatly affected. 
  • Finally, this system lacks a stabilizing force. Thus, it stands in direct confrontation with the evolutionary theory. 

However, the attention to the concept of “external” sovereignty makes the theory a relevant part of politics. Its pragmatic outlook and importance of geography prove to be something that might be very helpful in contemporary times. 

Rising population: The major concern for the nation

 One of the gravest advancement gives most developing nations in the world are confronting is population. According to United Nations populace measurements, the total population rose by 30% somewhere in the range of 1990 and 2010 which is an alarmingly high rate. The unreasonable populace has different unfavorable impacts remembering undue weight for the natural resource. Likewise, the populace is certainly not an all universal challenge. It is explicit to countries whose economies have yet not accomplished maximum capacity and advancement.

     India’s en route to being the world’s most populated nation. This is bad news The rising populace is a worldwide issue today. India is the second-largest nation on the globe after China. Every seven individual on the globe is an Indian. Because of the blast of the populace in India and Gujarat, day by day issues can be seen. In India, the progression of the population rise is by all accounts seen that in the year 1891, the total populace of the nation was 23 crores 60 lakhs; in 1901, it was 23 crore 83 lakhs. Hence the number of inhabitants in the nation expanded by 23 lakhs in 10 years. That is, the yearly rise in the populace was under 2 lakhs. In 1991, India’s populace was 25 million and 20 million. Also, in 10 years the number of inhabitants in the nation was added to 1 corer 37 lake individuals. That is, the yearly development in populace is more than 11 lakhs. In any case, in 1921, the number of inhabitants in the nation diminished by 7 lakes 72 thousand individuals. Subsequently, in 1921 the number of inhabitants in India was moderate and whimsical After 1921 fast and consistent populace development is occurring in India. Consequently, the year 1921 is alluded to as the “great Year of the Year”. In the three decades somewhere in the range of 1921 and 1951, India’s populace has expanded by 2.7 crores and 4.24 corers individually, and the nation’s populace was 25 crores in 1921. It expanded to 36 crores in 1951; the number of inhabitants in India in the 50-year gala followed by 7.81 crores every year, 10.9, 13.3, 15.8 lastly in the 1991-multi decade, more than 18 crores populace was included. Accordingly, after 1921, there is a quick population rise in India. The number of inhabitants in 1901 was 23 crores 83 and it was 63. In the year 1963, it has been multiple times. The number of inhabitants in 43 crores lakhs of 1961, two in 1992, two of every 41 years. In 1951, India’s populace was 36 million, 10 lakhs, in 53 years, in 2004, there were three multiple – 108. This ago, India’s populace took 90 years to multiple times.

The current populace of India is 1,380,456,029 as of Tuesday, July 14, 2020, given Worldometer elaboration of the most recent United Nations information.

India 2020 populace is assessed at 1,380,004,385 individuals at midyear as per UN information.

India populace is proportionate to 17.7% of the complete total populace.

India positions number 2 in the rundown of nations (and conditions) by the populace.

The populace density in India is 464 for every Km2 (1,202 individuals for each mi2).

The all-out land area is 2,973,190 Km2 (1,147,955 sq. miles)

35.0 % of the populace is urban (483,098,640 individuals in 2020)

The median age in India is 28.4 years.

Our population will be at the top in world population graph by 2060

In the mid-2020s; India’s populace is expected to surpass China’. India’s populace will peak at 1.65 billion of every 2060 and start plunging after that as indicated by UN projections, however, a few demographers anticipate that the decrease should start decades sooner. Africa, notwithstanding, will keep on becoming as the century progressed, hitting 3 billion during the 2060s.

Why is it necessary to control our population?

Overpopulation is a trouble that can be fathomed distinctly with an apprehension of the natural resources and its interaction with individuals. The development of a national Indian arranging commission for populace control is seen as fundamental for propelling all individuals to reduce population size.

Without populace control, a blast of the population will occur and as an outcome, access to the fundamental needs of human presence will be significantly harder to get. Monetary development will be influenced if populace development goes unchecked.

Populace rise has two measurements: it is as a chance to accelerate monetary development, yet also, burden if it isn’t overseen appropriately.

 Population growth has two dimensions: it is as an opportunity to accelerate economic growth, but also a burden if it is not managed properly.

In the event, if we care about the ecosystem systems, other life on this planet we would control our populace rise. Our blossoming sapiens populace demands a tremendous measure of land, for the regular asset, for land for agribusiness to take care of ourselves, land for urban areas, this land and land use dislodge wildlife and natural surroundings. loss of habitat IS the main explanation species become wiped out, today!

Measures to control the rising population

The following are the best functional methods which can be utilized to control population rise:

Education

Education structures the foundation of an individual and economy. When instructed individuals know and comprehend the damages which a high population rise rate has. Educating, particularly women education, can do some amazing things in controlling the populace. An informed man and lady can promptly comprehend the advantages of a nuclear family. Without adequate instruction, most estimates like awareness campaigns and women strengthening will end up being deficient and inconsequential.

Delayed Marriages

The issue of child marriage is exceptionally noticeable in specific nations with high populace like India, Pakistan or Bangladesh. A marriage at a young age prompts a long-span for conceiving a child. Likewise, young marriage lack individuals of the education and awareness required to be delicate towards and comprehend the outcomes of bringing up so many children. A UN report has proposed that there would be a critical decrease in total populace if the legitimate for marriage is made 20 years.

Governmental Actions

Not much result can be achieved from these if family planning and use of contraception remain optional instead of mandatory. Strict legal steps are required for child marriage, education, the abolition of child labour and beggary and family planning to reap significant benefits from it. Proper enforcement of laws related to child labour, slavery and beggary will ensure that parents don’t sell their children or send them out to work thus forcing them to raise a lesser number of kids.

Providing Incentives

Incentives have to be a productive strategy measure in battling most rising issues including population. Giving health facilities, guidance or even monetary incentives can be exceptionally compelling to control the population. There are some motivation approaches like paying a certain sum of cash to individuals with not multiple children or free or limited instruction for the single kid and so forth which are set up in most developing nations confronting populace related difficulties and has likewise ended up being a valuable measure.

.Medical provisions

One major downside of developing nations is that of constrained and exceptionally driven medical services. Given the high country urban separation in creating nations, accessibility of good medical clinics and specialists is constrained to urban focuses accordingly bringing about high infant death rate in provincial territories. Rural individuals, to guarantee that probably a portion of their children endure, bring forth an ever-increasing number of children subsequently adding to the populace growth. if provided with ideal medical services, population rate will more likely to get decrease.

Spread Awareness

Individuals should be advised and made to comprehend the outcomes of having an excessive number of children. Government and non-government establishments can convey awareness advising individuals how they will be not able to give great sustenance, instruction or medical facilities to their kids on the off chance that they have too much. The populace is likewise an explanation behind ignorance and maladies and lack of healthy sustenance and its negative impacts are required to be imparted to the overall population to extend their thinking and comprehension.

Women Empowerment

In most developing nations, women are not viewed as comparable to men regarding power. Such conclusions are extremely common in Islamic nations and even India and Bangladesh. Gender discrimination is a significant explanation of populace development. Individuals continue bringing forth kids to have a larger number of a male child than females. Enabling lady with a state in issues concerning them like labour and instructing them to fight against discrimination will guarantee a healthy and mindful society.

Eradicate Poverty

Why most underdeveloped nations have the most elevated population growth rather than rich ones. poverty has a straight connection to populace rise. In developing nations of Asia and Africa, kid work, slave exchanging and human dealing are profoundly common. African nations for instance despite everything have the most extreme revealing of slave exchanging however exchanging of people is lawfully prohibited wherever on the globe. Individuals bring forth children and offer them to rich individuals who thus utilize these children in different arduous and unethical tasks. If not sell, these guardians power their children to ask or work at a delicate to procure some extra money for the family. These individuals accept that more children mean more hands for asking and work and in this manner more money. Without solid measures for development and destitution destruction, different techniques for populace control may end up being ineffectual.

Easy and Cheap availability of Contraceptives

Guaranteeing that individuals have simple and modest access to contraception devices will help to stay away from instances of undesirable pregnancies and births. Each state-owned hospitals ought to be made to give economically proficient anti-conception medication meds or medical procedures since poor have neither the methods, not attention to utilize contraception. Utilization of condoms and contraceptives must be publicized and advanced alongside guaranteeing modest and prepared access to these. Contraceptives don’t just end up being a significant populace control measure yet, also, forestalls spreading of sexually transmitted infections like AIDS in this way guaranteeing nuclear healthy families.

Development

Why the enormous population and the expanding pace of it is the greatest concern looked by the developing countries of Africa and Asia while the equivalent is an almost no danger in nations like America, Europe or Japan. Absence of Development suggests high destitution, high illiteracy, high discrimination, absence of consciousness, absence of medical services and hence expanded populace development. Any economy is named created is its populace is non-discriminated and just. By diminishing separation among sexual orientation and class and guaranteeing improvement of the entire populace rather than a given portion of society would wipe out the challenge of populace rise for once.