ROLE OF SCIENCES FOR PEACE AND DEVELOPMENT – TODAY AND TOMORROW

What exactly do peace and development refer to?

Peace in today’s world can very well be described as a sort of abstract utopian concept longed for, ie a common goal and state of rest. This is clearly contradicted and humiliated in today’s world with the ongoing thirst and hunger for power, territory, and capital. At the same time, development refers to a long-drawn process which can contribute towards creating growth, positive change, or simply an improvement in the physical, mental or social surroundings of any human being.

So now the crucial question which comes into mind is, “where exactly does science fit into this complex demographic?”. Science, whose nature is yet to be known and harnessed, its power unmatched, put into such a dangerous and volatile situation.

Limiting the capabilities of science to plainly its subjective attributes- physics, chemistry, biology etc. is an injustice to the core of the subject. Its scope includes the likes of social, economic, and environmental science, which are increasingly being incorporated into our daily lives and can be said to bring about tangible positive changes. For peace, science provides the greatest boon in today’s disease-stricken world in the form of medicines. Even in today’s highly sensitive virus-stricken environment, countries all over the world are able to share and discuss their individual discoveries, findings and hence contribute towards improving the world situation as a whole and henceforth try to bring about a state of rest and normalcy for all. Science furthermore opens up various new horizons for career opportunities and hence improves the employment conditions, further enabling stability to exist that can eventually contribute towards peace within a country or area. It also creates the environment needed for learning and education.

This is a beneficial effect because by improving education in a country, we improve the society for future generations. Hence, it can inculcate within them an early habit of staying in a state of peace and maintaining peace which will only be helpful in building society. Suppose I were to illustrate this argument further using an example. In that case, we can educate even five children who have been born and brought up in dire conditions; they might grow up and learn to sustain themselves by good means, in contrast to today’s scenario where many of the poverty-stricken, unemployed people, especially the youth is turning to crime or even war as seen in the northern parts of our very own country. These are the parts where the resources are so scarce and underdeveloped that the people have no choice but to try and survive of anything, desperate and needy for minimum sustenance.

Science hence if not directly, indirectly, can bring out a sure-shot habit of peace.

While at the same time, if we were to talk about the direct implications of science on bringing about peace, a prominent successful example necessary to include would be the current dealings and proceedings of the honest attempt to foster harmony between the war-stricken nations and people – the Israelis and the Palestinians.

The conflict between these two has been raging on since 1948 imply after the modern Jewish state was newly founded. It is not as though attempts haven’t been made to bring peace in these countries. on several occasions, there have been attempts to find common ground to arrive at a consensus to achieve peace and stability for peoples of both sides. These efforts even included endeavours to promote interaction, collaboration and peace-building between the two groups, but somehow always ended in hostility. There was no tangible change seen until 2002 when the IPSO, the Israeli Palestinian science organisation, was launched to bring together scientists from both sides to pursue joint projects.

The grants issued under the program require the consensus and partnership of both the Israelis and the Palestinians. Following its mission statement, the IPSO proposes to establish a model of infrastructure that promotes, creates and sustains development educations and, most importantly, the collaboration between the communities through the universal language of science using innovative projects and initiatives. Scientific research endeavours involving people working together as equal partners would produce practical results and would likewise engender personal trust and friendship between people living in the two communities. Hence improve the conditions required to attain common goals and further peace by enabling the parties to arrive at a common ground beneficial for growth and support for both.

Surprising too is the lack of awareness of institutions such as IPSO and its vision for promoting peace through collaborative interactions between Palestinian and Israeli scientists. The workings of the IPSO can be used as an important model to base future organisations and missions upon in such similar conflict-prone areas, which will eventually benefit from common associations applicable to both concerned parties with a common independent goal and indirect implication on peace.

If I was to talk about science and development, there is no doubt that these two factors go hand in hand. Without science, there can virtually be no development. In fact, one of the largest and effective strategies devised in the last century of sustainable development, which includes the idea of using resource judiciously, is the very component of earth and economic sciences.

Sustainable development in the past century has proven to be an advantageous strategy in terms of its terms for use and mission statements which include using only for our own needs and preserving enough for the coming generations for them to undergo development with exactly the same freedom present generations have been able to.

Furthermore, suppose we were to analyse the implications of the actions of ancient civilisations and colonies. They have constantly been developing themselves and their organisations using new techniques and methodology as the basis of trials and errors, which can be deduced as the first scientific experiments seen in modern civilisations. Whether it includes discoveries in the forms of new materials, technologies, etc. that have found practical application in various areas of production of economic goods that have become in common use by people, they have increased prosperity and made life easier.

This may have worked for them progressively and effectively, however recently, the norms and uses of the world with the increasing global warming, greenhouse gas emissions, increased risk of various climatic cataclysms, increased environmental pollution, declining resources of raw materials, arable land and clean water, the need to develop renewable sources of energy, electromobility, recycling have created the need to develop business processes according to the model of sustainable pro-ecological development and the green economy concept which are also constantly evolving. We can say that the two do go directly hand in hand.

If I were to compare the 3, science, peace and development, to an object, it would be to the branches of a tree called society. These three factors cannot grow and flourish in sanctity without the support of society. Furthermore, all contribute equally in some way or the other to the overall growth of the tree by bearing fruits etc. which implicates directly on society to maintain it economically and keep it standing, which is exactly the role science needs to fulfil in today’s changing world.

Written by – By Tanisha Rungta

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What is Real Feminism?

Feminism is the theory of political, economic, and social equality of the sexes, also known as ~gender equality~. It is a simple notion that women are people, and they are equal. It isn’t asking for anything but equal rights and opportunities. However, more often than not, its meaning gets manipulated by male chauvinists to indicate that it’s a moment meant to demean men, which is so not the case.

In no way does it mean that we hate our men. Men of quality support equality. Both conscious and unconscious gender bias is rampant within us, and to get rid of it, we need to come to terms with the fact that we are the problem, but we are the solution.

Thousands believe in equal rights but find “feminism” a word and a movement that doesn’t align with their personal believes or values. May I ask them why is that? Don’t we have a word for everything in this world? In what way could a word that is just conveying its meaning be offending to someone? You believe in equality but not in feminism is a catastrophe because they aren’t mutually exclusive. It’s common sense. It just asks women to be placed on the same level as men, neither higher nor lower, and get the same treatment in both positive and negative situations.

It strives to shine a light on the deep-rooted patriarchy and misogyny embedded in our society and provides ways to fix it. It is essential that your feminism is intersectional and doesn’t exclude people based on their religion, race, and socio-economic status. It needs to be for everyone and not categorically for the people you like or dislike. A big part of feminism is letting women do whatever the hell they want to. This includes supporting them when they want to become the president and supporting them when they don’t want to work and stay home. Personally, it means not giving the reigns of my life to a male simply because I’m a woman and he’s a man; To get disrespected and not have my opinion heard because of my gender; to not have a seat at the table because of my gender. All of this doesn’t make any sense, especially in the 21st century, because any given woman possesses as much power and potential as any man does. And to that section of people at the back who couldn’t care any less about this because they simply don’t see the discrimination and injustice going around, you must either have buttons for eyes or are simply blinded by the amazing combination of your extreme faux notion and idea of equality on the outside and your inner male superiority complex. Feminism isn’t about making women stronger. Women are already strong. It’s about changing the way the world perceives that strength.

As the glorious Letty Cottin Pogrebin’s rightly said, “When men are oppressed, it’s a tragedy, but when women are oppressed, its tradition”. And in my humble opinion dumping that tradition out of the park is exactly what feminism is about.

Written by – Radhika Ahuja

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Let’s recall some prominent individuals

The hundreds of years have been loaded up with wonderful individuals who have done astonishing things. Odds are you can name a couple. Shockingly, few out of every odd chronicled figure has got the commendation and acknowledgement they legitimately deserve. However, the more they are spoken about, the more probable their insight, fortitude, or insignificant presence will be associated with decades to come. Keep their recollections alive by finding out about the accompanying individuals overlooked by history.

Raja Suhal Dev 

In Indian history books, we have studied that Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni assaulted India multiple times during 1000 AD to 1027 AD. We have additionally discovered that Muhammad Ghori vanquished Prithvi Raj Chauhan in the Second Battle of Tarain in 1192 AD and set up Islamic guidelines in India. However, we neglect to ask what occurred during the mediating 165 (1027 AD to 1192 AD) years. Didn’t the outside trespassers assault India during this period? On the off chance that truly, at that point for what reason don’t we know? Assuming no, at that point what was the purpose of this? How about we attempt to discover the response to this inquiry. 

King Mahmud passed on in 1030 AD. Promptly from that point, his nephew Salar Masud Ghazni attacked India in May 1031 AD with more than 1,00,000 fighters. This military crossed Punjab, Sindh, and Gujarat crushing neighbourhood rulers and came to Bahraich in present Uttar Pradesh. The local leaders of North Indian plain framed a union under Raja Suhal Dev Passi. In June 1033, Suhal Dev asked Salar Masud to quit tormenting neighborhood individuals and leave the land. Salar Masud overlooked the admonition. On the early morning of thirteenth June 1033, a unified armed force under Suhal Dev slid on a lot bigger Ghazni armed force positioned at Bahraich. Masud’s military was assaulted and surrounded. Furious battling proceeded for a considerable length of time. Suhal Dev’s military didn’t show any kindness. No detainee was taken. Every single warrior of Ghazni armed force was put to the blade. The area of this fight was close to introducing day Chittaura Jheel, a lake situated at 8 km. away from present Bahraich towards Gond. On fourteenth June 1033 (Sunday), Salar Masud was guillotined. The destruction of the Ghazni armed force was decimated to the point that for the following 160 years, the trespassers from Afghanistan never set out to cross Punjab and Sindh. 

Today, we, the Indians, have nearly overlooked this extraordinary warrior, Raja Suhal Dev. Because of our plan-driven history books, we remain uninformed about the Battle of Bahraich (thirteenth – fourteenth June 1033). Be that as it may, neighbourhood individuals of Uttar Pradesh have still recalled this warrior-lord. The nearby ditties despite everything-sing the adventure of the bravery of Raja Suhal Dev Passi.

Veerapandiya kattabomman

Veerapandiya pursued a war against the English during the eighteenth century as a playmaker chieftain in Tamil Nadu. He would not pay charge against the authority of the East India organization. In any case, he was caught by the English and hanged in 1799.

Matthias Sindelar

A spectator once said that Matthias Sindelar played soccer the way “a grandmaster plays chess.” The star player appreciated donning distinction playing for FK Austria Vienna and the Austrian national group all through the 1920s and 1930s, which brought him prominence and riches like the present players. However, his vocation took a turn in March 1938, when Austria was added by Nazi Germany, and Hitler’s powers entered the nation. While numerous Austrians saw the Nazis’ appearance as a victory for the nation, Sindelar didn’t share their perspectives. The Nazis had chosen the Austrian group would before long stop to exist, and its players would play for the German national group. In any case, the last match was allowed before the ingestion of the Austrian side. 

Sindelar’s disputable presentation on the pitch surely caused a stir. After apparently passing up on simple chances to play with the German group, Sindelar, in the end, scored an objective, trailed by a second objective from his kindred colleague. Sindelar even played out a triumph move before a VIP box loaded up with Nazi authorities. When the match was finished, Sindelar resigned to abstain from entering the German Austrian side. He proceeded to purchase a bistro from a Jewish proprietor for the maximum, as opposed to at the slice rate he was qualified for. Matthias and his better half were discovered dead in their loft in January 1939, in the wake of capitulating to carbon monoxide harming. However, many accept they were killed by the Nazis.

Alexander Hamilton

Up until a couple of years back, many Americans didn’t have a clue who Alexander Hamilton was or his job in their country’s history. While he may come up short on the popularity of any semblance of George Washington and Thomas Jefferson, he was similarly as significant. However, because of his absence of striking quality ever, the US government considered expelling him from the $10 greenback. 

It wasn’t until the appearance of the hit melodic Hamilton on the Broadway stage that many individuals took in his story, which made sure about his place on the monetary certificate. It subtleties the genuine story of Hamilton, who was an outsider and vagrant from Charleston, which was the capital of Nevis. Following the demise of his mom, Hamilton abandoned Charleston to concentrate in New York. When he showed up, he filled in like a fearless fighter battling against the British, which prompted him serving George Washington as a senior associate. He was likewise persuasive in how the United States ought to be administered, energetically promising the Founding Fathers to receive a solid government over another government or oppression. 

The same number of enemies of federalists were vocal in their interests, Hamilton articulately composed a progression of articles called The Federalist Papers, which protected the US

Henrietta Lacks

Henrietta Lacks was a helpless tobacco rancher who hailed from Southern Virginia however moved to Maryland to begin another existence with her significant other. In January 1951, Henrietta was admitted to Johns Hopkins Hospital, which was the main emergency clinic that would treat dark patients during the 1950s. She sadly died nine months after her cervical disease analysis. 

Unfortunately, Henrietta never knew the significant job her cells would play in medication. Dr Dim Otto was given an area of her tumour for study and found an uncommon quality in her cells. While most cells would ordinarily die surprisingly fast, Henrietta’s didn’t. Her cell line later got known as HeLa Cells and demonstrated priceless due to their “everlasting” characteristics. Jonas Salk later utilized the cells for his polio immunization research. HeLa Cells have likewise been utilized as the reason for countless clinical licenses. However, Henrietta Lacks never got the opportunity to figure out how her cells changed science perpetually and assisted with sparing a huge number of lives over the world.

Constitution and assisted with influencing individuals toward a central government. Additionally, as the primary secretary of the Treasury, Hamilton built up across the nation banking framework Americans despite everything use to this day.

Lakshmi Sahgal

As a pioneer of all women Jhansi regiment of Indian national armed force (INA), Lakshmi Sehgal assumed a key title role in the Indian history. She turned into the pastor of women issues of the Azad rear govt. she set up a facility to help poor in Singapore during the 1940s. Afterwards, she joined Subhash Chandra bose in INA.

Henry Vivian Louis Derozio

Perhaps the earliest patriot of present-day India, he was Anglo-Indian and Portuguese by drop, yet believed India to be his Karambhoomi. He was a splendid student and begun teaching English at a youthful age of 17. He had incredible speech and discussing abilities, and an extraordinary writer cum researcher. He ingrained nationalistic emotions among his understudies, to contemplate the advancement of the nation, and was most likely the first to ask Indians to look for portrayal in the British organization. He began the principal “Scholastic Association” in an Indian school. Despite being a nonbeliever, he affected the socio-strict development of the nineteenth century and pioneer of Indian nationalism. His less than ideal demise at a youthful age of 22 upset more commitments for him. His commitments to the Bengal Renaissance and Young Bengal Movement ought to remain time interminable. The last time he was perceived by our country was in 2009 when a stamp was propelled praising his 200th birthday celebration. He needs more acknowledgement.

The Plight of the MSMEs

The declaration of the COVID-19 as a global pandemic gave rise to a state of confusion amongst nations. With people foraging for an answer during these uncertain times, Google reported that “since the first week of February, search interest in coronavirus increased by +260% globally.” The pandemic was successful in not only putting a dent in the health-related sectors but also in the economic sphere. McKinsey and Company revealed that the onset of this pandemic made huge ripples around the globe. The effects of these ripples were further built up with the discovery of the situation of several jobs around the globe.  A recent data of the International Labour Organization (ILO) with regards to the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on labour market revealed the ruinous effects it had on workers in the informal economy and on hundreds of millions of enterprises worldwide. The closure of factories and business mostly in MSME sectors was seen.

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MSME

The declaration of COVID-19 as a pandemic in March saw and continues to see a steep surge in unemployment. The sharp drop in work as a result of the outbreak meant that around 1.6 billion workers in the informal economy (approximately 50% of the global workforce) face the danger of levelling of their livelihoods warned the International Labour Organization. “ILO Monitor third edition: COVID-19 and the world of work,” brought to light that the drop in working hours especially in the current quarter of 2020 is expected to be notably worse than anticipated.  “Compared to pre-crisis levels (Q4 2019), 10.5 per cent deterioration is now expected, equivalent to 305 million full-time jobs (assuming a 48-hour working week). The previous estimate was for a 6.7 per cent drop, equivalent to 195 million full-time workers. This is due to the prolongation and extension of lockdown measures,” stated a document issued by the International Labour Organization regarding the crisis.

The disturbance in the economic sphere has led to a damage of billions of informal economy workers (representing the most vulnerable in the labour market), out of which a worldwide total of 2 billion and a global workforce of 3.3 billion suffered massive impairment to their livelihood. The ILO revealed that the initial months of the crisis is estimated to have resulted in a drop of 60% in the income of informal workers globally. Statistics divulged that a drop of 81% in Africa and the Americas, 21.6% in Asia and the Pacific, and 70% in Europe and Central Asia was witnessed. The challenge regarding employment has been especially critical for small businesses. Firms with fewer than 100 employees have been seen to be more vulnerable when compared to 40% of the large private-sector employers.

Moody’s Investor Service claimed the downgrading of Indian economy by estimating 0% growth in FY21. The study laid bare that the fiscal measures introduced by the Government were unlikely to offset lower consumption and slow-moving economic activity. Berstein entertained -7% growth, whereas both Goldman Sachs and Normura forecasted a 5% contraction in the Indian economy. The report further stated that although the direct fiscal impact of the policy reforms 1-2% of GDP, it would provide limited impetus to the furtherance of the economy. A strain in the fiscal deficit would contribute to an increase in future debt in debt-to-GDP term reported Moody’s. Moreover, the Investor Service opined that Indian Government’s extension of ‘working capital loans’ to micro, small, and medium enterprises (MSMEs) will not suffice and shield from the economic shock they are facing now as they were already facing financial strain well before the crisis.

The MSME sector which is among the worst-hit, globally, accounts for 33.4% of India’s output along with a whopping 45% of Indian export. These enterprises, since the day of the announcement of the pandemic, have been facing the possibility of extinction. The MSMEs that rely upon daily transaction to stay afloat have been facing serious problems as a result of thee nationwide lockdown. A survey conducted by All India Manufacturers’ Organisation (AIMO) that covered 5000 MSMEs showed how 71% of the small businesses were unable to pay salaries since March. Moreover, the findings of the survey revealed that more than 40% of the businesses would shut shop sooner or later.  The CII CEOs snap poll disclosed that almost 54% of company heads predicted job losses irrespective of the sector they are in whereas 45% foresee 15-30% layoffs. For instance, one of the most famous auto-manufacturing company, Maruti Suzuki informed that the production in April was ‘zero’. The predicament has been visible across different manufacturing industries, including textiles, chemicals, etc. TransUnion Cibil discussed that there was a risk of 2.3 lakh crores worth loan might become non-performing. Moreover, with the increase in the demand for cash flow, there will emerge issues that are expected to prevail even with relaxations introduced by the government.

To give a shove to the MSMEs and inject life-blood to this sector:

  1. GOI declared a cut in a policy of repo rate by 75 basis points to 4.4%.
  2. More than 3 lakh crore rupees was injected into the system.
  3. Moreover, it allowed a 3-month moratorium on the payment of instalment with regards to existing loans.
  4. Reserve Bank of India (RBI) opened another window of 50,000 rupees for refinancing. Based on this, post receiving this money, banks will be mandated to invest within one month. RBI also reduced liquidity coverage ratio to 80% whilst providing a special financial scheme to All India Financial Institutions (AIFIs) at repo rate.
  5. Emergency credit lines have been created by several banks.
  6. A low-interest rate of 5% has been declared.
  7. Various business continuity measures have been adopted by the RBI.

Nitin Gadkari, Minister for Road Transport & Highways, Minister of Shipping and the Minister of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises, explained that Government of India has been working tirelessly on policies concerning the MSMEs with focus on entrepreneurship development. The sector that accounts for nearly 30% of the economy of Indian nation needs a robust economic plan so that it can get its engine running once again after COVID-19 ceases to exist. The post-pandemic economic scenario would be one that would introduce capital scarcity to the globe. Nations all around need to conclusively come up with a plan that would be mainly concerned with reviving the MSME sector. A comprehensive system that would get back the MSMEs on track is the need of the hour.

                                                                                                                         

By: Sagarika Mukhopadhyay

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