आत्मनिर्भर भारत – राष्ट्र विकास में विद्यार्थियों की भूमिका

प्रस्तावना

किसी भी देश का भविष्य उस देश के बच्चों, छात्र और युवाओं पर ही निर्भर करता है,क्योंकि यह तीनों ही किसी भी राष्ट्र के मजबूत आधार स्तंभ होते हैं। जिनके कंधों पर एक विकसित महाशक्तिशाली राष्ट्र का सपना पलता है और साकार भी होता है ।

यह विद्यार्थी अपार संभावनाओं और असीमित प्रतिभाओं के बीच स्वरूप होते हैं।जो आगे चलकर भविष्य में किसी भी राष्ट्र का चाहमुखी विकास करने में अपनी सक्रिय भागीदारी निभा सकते हैं। और उस राष्ट्र को पूरे विश्व में एक अलग ही पहचान दिलाने व आत्मनिर्भर भारत बनाने में महत्वपूर्ण भूमिका निभा सकते है।

विद्यार्थी और विद्यार्थी जीवन

विद्यार्थी जीवन में समय होता है जब कोई बच्चा व युवा गजब के आत्मविश्वास उत्साह,ऊर्जा और जोश से भरा रहता है।और उनके दिमाग में प्रतिदिन नए-नए विचार जन्म लेते हैं।नई-नई योजनाएं आकार लेने लगती हैं।असंभव को संभव कर दिखाने का जज्बा इनके अंदर समाया रहता है यही वह समय होता है जब विद्यार्थियों को एक सही मार्गदर्शन,एक सच्चे अर्थों में प्रेरक या मार्गदर्शन की जरूरत होती है। जो उनके अंदर की अपार क्षमता और संभावनाओं और असीमित ऊर्जा को एक सही दिशा दे सके अगर उस समय उनका सही तरह से मार्गदर्शन किया जाए तो देश की प्रगति के मार्ग पर चलने और विश्व में एक अलग पहचान बनाने से कोई नहीं रोक सकता।

विद्यार्थी जीवन,जीवन का सबसे सर्वश्रेष्ठ समय होता है जहां पर व्यक्ति न सिर्फ अपने सुनहरे भविष्य की नींव अपने कठिन परिश्रम से रखता है।बल्कि राष्ट्र के निर्माण में अपना योगदान की जिम्मेदारी भी तय करता है इसी समय वह जीवन में आने वाले संघर्षों,उतार-चढ़ाव और जीवन की बारीकियों तथा समाज के अन्य क्षेत्रों के बारे में जानने का प्रयास शुरू करते हैं। हमारे देश के विद्यार्थियों के मजबूत कंधों पर ही आत्मनिर्भर भारत का सपना टिका है और यह उन्हीं के मजबूत इरादों से फलेगा व फूलेगा भी।

भारत में विद्यार्थी

हर देश के असली पूंजी छात्र और युवा होते हैं जो राष्ट्र को अन्य पूंजियों से भर देने का साहस रखते हैं ।और विश्व पलट पर अपने देश को आर्थिक, समाजिक,बौद्धिक,धार्मिक आध्यात्मिक रूप से एक शानदार पहचान दिलाने में मददगार होते हैं।भारत में भी विद्यार्थी वर्ग की आबादी कुल राष्ट्रीय आबादी का एक बड़ा हिस्सा है। जो भविष्य के जिम्मेदार नागरिक बनेंगे।आजादी के 70 वर्षों बाद भी भारत शिक्षा के क्षेत्र में काफी पीछे है।भारत में 14 साल तक के बच्चों के लिए “शिक्षा का अधिकार कानून” बनाया गया है।

आत्मनिर्भर भारत,राष्ट्रीय विकास में छात्रों की भूमिका

किसी भी राष्ट्र की प्रगति के लिए वहां के नागरिकों को शिक्षित होना अनिवार्य/अति आवश्यक है।जब हम अपने बच्चों को शिक्षित करते हैं तो हम राष्ट्र के निर्माण में अपनी भागीदारी निभाते हैं क्योंकि यही बच्चे आगे चलकर देश को एक सही दिशा और दशा दे सकते हैं।अगर हम अपने देश के बच्चों को अशिक्षित रखेंगे तो हमारा देश कभी भी तरक्की नहीं कर सकता है विद्यार्थी का कर्तव्य है कि वह अपनी शिक्षा का उपयोग अपने समाज अपने देश की तरक्की के सर्वांगीण विकास के लिए करें छात्रों के अंदर असीमित प्रतिभा और उर्जा होती है इसलिए वह समाज में व्याप्त अनेक बुराइयों जैसे भ्रष्टाचार,सामाजिक असमानता लिंग भेद, अन्याय,दमन शोषण, दहेज प्रथा,कन्या भूण हत्या,उग्रवाद,आतंकवाद आदि के खिलाफ एक मजबूत अभियान छेड़ कर उसे समूल जड़ से नष्ट कर सकते हैं।छात्र आंदोलन के आगे तो बड़ी बड़ी राजनीतिक शक्तियां भी झुकने को मजबूर हो जाती हैं ।अपने विचारों के और ऊर्जा से वो राष्ट्र निर्माण में आने वाली हर बाधा को दूर कर,विकास के पहिए को तेजी से घुमा सकते हैं।छात्र सरकार द्वारा चलाए जाने वाले राष्ट्रीय स्तर के अभियानों को बड़ी तेजी में सफलता पूर्वक चला सकते हैं ।लोगों के अंदर इन अभियानों के प्रति जागरूकता पैदा कर सकते हैं। कोई भी अभियान छात्रों के माध्यम से सफलतापूर्वक चलाया जा सकता है। अगर छात्रों को पहले से प्रशिक्षण दिया जाए तो, वह किसी भी राष्ट्रीय आपदा के वक्त महत्वपूर्ण भूमिका निभा सकते हैं।जरूरत है तो उनकी क्षमताओं का सही उपयोग करना उनका सही मार्गदर्शन करना।

उपसंहार

विद्यार्थी जीवन में ही व्यक्ति के अंदर अच्छे संस्कारों के आदर्श मूल्यों को स्थापित करना आवश्यक है।क्योंकि अपने देश के सम्मान में गौरव के लिए अपनी जान कुर्बान करने का ज्जबा इनके दिलों में जलता है और देश का सर्वागीण राष्ट्रीय विकास कर भारत को एक आत्मनिर्भर भारत बनाने का सपना इन्हीं के दिमाग से होकर गुजरता है।

Written by – Ankit Kumar

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Viewer Discretion Required: The Reality of ‘New’ media

Importance of Viewer Discretion to cope up with prevailing media bias

You switch on the news channel and see a person shouting at the highest of his lungs trying his best to make you think that the establishment is ‘always’ right. You flip the channel and are welcomed by a man who barely resembles Imran Khan, mimicking the Pakistani PM. Yet one more channel flip and comes a person on your TV screen, taking sarcastic digs at the screaming anchor while propagating his agenda.

News media in today’s context holds a particularly complex place. While there is no denying that in a democratic country, journalism and news act as power balancers and checkers. The commercialisation of news that has come up to be the truth as a consequence of competition and TRP races, has caused sensationalisation of stories. So something like PM visiting his mother is given more coverage than a crucial subject. Not just this but the increasing competition has also led to journalism counting on political parties for funds, thus biased news presentation.

Social Media: The New News Source
Social Media: The New News Source

For a short time, social media sites were considered the perfect successor. Since social media didn’t believe TRP’s, it had been assumed that bias wouldn’t seep in there. But social media comes with its perils. In some other context, the ‘personalised content’ trait of Social Media would be appreciated but within the context of stories, personalised content causes you to sleep in a bubble. You’ll be shown the content, you engage the foremost with. So if you follow leftist accounts, your opinion will progress from what’s shown as facts on those accounts. Which entirely kills the motive of stories within the first place. News should only present events as they’re happening. What to form of it should dwell in the hands of the audience, which, unfortunately, isn’t the case, right now. Social Media has also caused a faster spread of lies. Independent journalism, that became a fad with youngsters like Dhruv Rathee and Pratik Sinha could have brought change but even then the importance of viewer discretion can’t be neglected.

Need of the hour is that the ‘spectator’ becomes the ‘questioner’.

Ravish Kumar, Journalist, NDTV

The circumstances that we live in mandates every citizen to actively pursue true news. To become what they call, “active citizens”. To understand everything about everything and keep an open mind with well-formed opinions. As a citizen of a democratic country like India, it’s our responsibility to not just receive news but actively engage with it. We can not stop watching the news altogether since it’s only when we hear differing opinions that we get to introspect and see if we truly believe in what we are saying. The trick is to seek out a balance between the consumption of news and it’s analysis.

RELIANCE ON FOREIGN PHARMA GIANTS TO SELF-RELIANT INDIA

Novel coronavirus spread globally like a bolt from the blue.

An outbreak of COVID-19 has already crippled the economy across the world. Meanwhile, all the pharma companies are facing new challenges due to the COVID19 pandemic.

India is the country that produced the largest amount of vaccines even before the pandemic.

There is no exception in this epidemic also.

COVAXIN is the first indigenous vaccine was approved for human trials and it is developed by Bharat Biotech in the collaboration with Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) and National Institute of Virology (NIV).

Other well-known Indian pharma companies like Zydus, Cipla, and Pune based Serum Institute and Panacea Biotech have been beavering away on developing coronavirus vaccine.

The United States requested India to supply anti-malarial drugs- Hydroxychloroquine which is believed to have some success in combating with the virus.

Coronavirus vaccine

Image source- (Times of India)

However, Indian pharma companies face stiff rivalry from pharmaceutical firms in China, Japan, and Israel and experience negative lobbying from “big pharma” companies.

There are some deficits in the Indian pharmaceutical arena so that could not turn to self-sufficient till now.

API dependence on China:

Though India is considered as “Pharmacy of the world“, but Indian top drug manufacturers, including Dr Reddy’s, Lupin, Pfizer, Zydus are heavily dependent on China for Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API) or key starting materials to manufacture drugs.

The government has identified that 58 APIs for which the Indian pharma industry solely relies on China. Nearly 70% of API imports from China which brought about a matter of concern due to current geopolitical strife between India and China.

For some APIs, especially antibiotics, India’s dependence on China is over 90%.

pharmacy dependency china

(Image source- Times of India)

They are attacking us in two ways- physically at the border and economically by increasing prices of APIs, key starting materials (KSM) and intermediates,” said Dinesh Dua, chairman, Pharmaceutical Export Promotion Council (Pharmexcil).

The country has imported a total of 699 APIs, out of which 378 were from China and 321 APIs were from other countries as per collected data.

According to Health Analytics Asia, in manufacturing, India is always among the leading countries but in the availability of API, it is import-dependent.

Breakdown to import medical devices:

Several multinational companies put the shutter to import medical devices, including implants, surgical pieces of equipment, disposables, and electronic medical gadgets due to the obsolete tax structure.

In India, customs duties varying only from 0-7.5% which is comparatively very less so they do not have market access barriers and have free access to the Indian market.

(Image source- Business Today)

Many manufacturers have reconciled with the fact that the government is seemingly unwilling to correct the low tariff structure prevalent since 2010.

They have adopted a new business strategy of importing rather than making in India as it is convenient and cheaper,” said Rajiv Nath, Forum Coordinator of Association of Indian Medical Device Industry (AiMeD).

Domestic firms have also claimed that they are losing the competition to stake the execution of Goods and Services Tax (GST) as the cost of imports has gone down by 11%. Earlier, 6% countervailing duty (CVD) ad 4% special additional duty (SAD) charged on all imports.

There were no such advantages for medical devices traders. As a consequence, most manufacturers recurred to import their products from countries such as China with its labels and sell in the market.

India’s medical diplomacy is at danger:

Amid surge COVID-19 cases abruptly, India’s “Medical diplomacy” has had to face a dilemma in this miserable condition.

Its medical diplomacy has so far involved giving quick clearances for export of Hydroxychloroquine to countries like the United States that requested it and sending Indian military physicians to the neighbouring countries such as Nepal and Bhutan to help local healthcare associates to fight with the novel coronavirus.

On the other hand, countries that rely on India may refuse to co-operate with it or would look to secure their supply chain and invest in their production of generic medicines.

(Image source- Indian Pharma)

Hence, some pharma giants are asking India to utilize this situation of a lack of raw materials to its advantage and the government is requested to make a new strategy.

But according to some experts, the government has already begun a new policy to increase the production of raw materials in India itself.

But there is still a question about the implementation in reality.

Lack of research:

India is among the countries with the lowest (in the bottom five) investment in scientific research which is the recent cause of the agitation.

Scientists are asking for more allocation of funds to carry forward their research. Due to lack of intellectual property protection, lack of data protection, and more importantly low investment in R&D moving towards dependency on foreign countries.

The education system is to blame as well, transmitting solely theoretical knowledge without practical development.

COVID19 is a new normal that each country would have to learn how to live with.

The vaccine would be marketed in some days. Every country is now in a race to find a durable cure for coronavirus that would be a feather in one’s cap.

As India is a leading country in the pharmaceutical arena, it is the right time to become “ATMANIRBHAR” (self-reliant) by increasing the production of raw materials and other finished products itself because it is not a good sign to depend on another country.

The government should take initiative and revise the old policy by discussing with Indian Pharma giants. Research-based education is highly required to meet the deficit. Manufacturers should also come forward to make India self-sufficient.

These may not be possible in one or two days, however, gradually it can rise. And perhaps it would make headway towards “ATMANIRBHAR BHARAT” (Self-reliant India).

By – Saswati Chattopadhyay

HOW CAN ONE CARRY FORWARD E-COMMERCE DURING THIS COVID-19 PANDEMIC?

The graph of being covid19 affected goes up abruptly. Meanwhile, the novel coronavirus has crippled the world economy. Indian finance has been suffering since the beginning as all other third world countries. RBI also refused to give the projection. Small businesses like street shops have been closed due to worldwide lockdown. Standing in such a miserable condition, e-commerce can be a new hope in economical arena.

WHAT IS E-COMMERCE?

E-commerce is derived from electronic commerce which refers to the purchasing and selling of products or transferring data and money by using the electronic network, primarily the internet. E-commerce markets are growing at noticeable rates. The online market is expected to grow by 56% in the last 5 years.

IMPACT OF COVID19 IN E-COMMERCE SYSTEM

Coronavirus has disrupted the supply chain management system globally. E-commerce services are also facing troubles due to lockdown and they are not able to deliver products. Security issues forced some companies to reduce the number of employees which called for horrible unemployment.

Gyms, shopping malls, cinema halls, restaurants in many cities are shutting until further notice.

As people have maintained social distancing as a way to slow down the rapid spread of coronavirus, there would be an increase in online shopping as they turn to e-commerce to purchase the items.

A survey by Engine found that people are spending on 10-30% more online.

Devanshu Dutta, Chief Executive of Third Eyesight, said, “The lockdown has certainly provided e-commerce a unique environment to expand its footprint, but the first several weeks saw them falter due to lack of product availability as well as breaks in supply chain.”

CTC-Ecommerce-by-Cat-750x527.png

Source: Common thread collective

The development comes even as Amazon said last month that they saw the “biggest impact” of the coronavirus outbreak in India amongst the international markets for the world wide lockdown. The volume of online transactions compared to the same period last year increased by 74%.

E-COMMERCE AS A TOOL OF ECONOMIC GROWTH IN COVI19 PANDEMIC

The strong and steady growth of internet users and spreading awareness regarding online shopping, low price due to bulk purchase, and so on. Besides, buying medical products like surgical masks, hand sanitizers are being purchased far faster than before pandemic.

According to data from Nielsen, items like hygienic and medical mask sales are up by more than 30%. Pandemic has also changed the entire scenario in other e-commerce services like grocery and subscription services. Apart from all these essentials, digital streaming like Netflix, Amazon is gaining enormous subscribers in this lockdown.

Moreover, social distancing and lockdown are further expected to make ahead way towards online shopping which contributes to the growth of global e-commerce.

E-COMMERCE IN POST PANDEMIC ERA

While brick and mortar retail is challenged under a new practice consumer behavior, the outbreak is fetching a new mass to e-commerce. It should boost the market across the region for a prolonged period, with strong development through 2025 providing several opportunities for new entrepreneurs and business leaders to launch new products and services.

But nothing is flawless. There are lots of online sites that have originated during this time and people are using as these are fulfilling their needs without a complication. But there is still a question about the authenticity of these sites. The services would be better in the near future if the hazards like app or site crashes can be mitigated.

-SaswatiChattopadhyay

Self-reliant Economy: Fact or Fiction?

The month of May saw Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi, disclosed an economic package of $266 billion to tackle the ongoing pandemic. “This package will work to bring about a self-reliant India,” said Prime Minister Modi. Self-reliance has been an issue that has dominated Indian thinking since time immemorial. In recent times, this concept has been making its presence felt, particularly in the economic sphere. The Indian economy has made a mark by emerging as the 5th largest economy. Moreover, a report by Price Waterhouse Coopers (PwC) stated that the country’s GDP at Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) would likely overtake that of the United States by 2050. The Indian economy has seen unparalleled developments in the economic arena that has left many wondering if India would soon claim to be a self-reliant economy. In 2019 Prime Minister Modi made an official announcement regarding India’s ability to become a $5 trillion economy by 2024-2025. This vision has been claimed to be something challenging while being achievable by Finance Minister, Nirmala Sitharam. If India manages to achieve this feat, in no time can it declare itself as a self-reliant economy?

However, it has been pointed out by several professionals and experts of the field that such a leap is not possible for India at this stage. Scholars seem to think that for the economy to grow into a self-sufficient one, the growth rate needs to be at least 12% per year. “$5 trillion is a good aspirational goal. But please understand that a $5 trillion economy in a matter of 5 to 6 years cannot be achieved unless the economy grows in a sustained way between 8 and 9 per cent. It has to be closer to 9 per cent because today the Indian economy is $2.7 trillion. So, $5 trillion means almost doubling the size of the economy. And that is possible only if the economy grows at 9 per cent per annum in a sustained way for 5 to 6 years,” said former RBI governor, C. Rangarajan. He also opined that for the nation to qualify as one with a developed economy, an approximate of USD 12,000 needs to be the per capita income and this level of growth was pegged to be possible based on a steady rate of 9% per annum.

Towards self-sufficiency

Prime Minister Modi in an address on May 12, 2020, stated “…21st century belongs to India…this vision strengthens…our resolve of self-reliant India…the meaning of self-reliance has changed…India does not advocate self-centric arrangements…India’s progress is…integral to that of the world….imperative for us to move forward with bold reforms to create a self-reliant India…to handle tough competition in the global supply chain…the economic package will increase the efficiency of all sectors… we need to play a big role in the global supply chain.” The message how India will “integrate not isolate” from this point forward was made clear as day by the Finance Minister on May 13, 2020. These aspirational words by the Prime Minister and then reiterated by the Finance Minister has led many to wonder if this the time when the Indian economy will take the big leap.

“When India speaks of becoming self-reliant, it doesn’t advocate self-centeredness but self-reliance that would bring happiness, cooperation, and peace to the whole world,” Mr Modi said in his speech regarding Aatmanirbhar Abhiyan. The Prime Minister claimed that there are five pillars to becoming self-reliant. “Infrastructure should become the identity of India; System should be based on the 21st-century technology-driven arrangements; Vibrant Demography is our source of energy for a self-reliant India; and Demand, whereby the strength of our demand and supply chain should be utilized to full capacity,” said the PM Modi. Prime Minister talked about how it is important to strengthen all the stakeholders as this would directly help fulfil their demand and enhance their capacity. He opined that it is the only way forward to ensure a self-reliant India. Prime Minister Modi “The definition of self-reliance has changed in the globalized world; it is different from being self-centred. Self-reliance contributes to the progress of the whole world.” While citing and example regarding the ongoing crisis, Modi explained how this crisis posed as an opportunity in front of the nation. Manufacturing of PPE and N-95 masks has shot through the roof to 2 lakh pieces daily.

The new economic package declared by the government which is a combination of the previous packages along with a new one totals to Rs 20 Lakh Crore which is equivalent to almost 10% of India’s GDP. It was made clear by the Prime Minister that the said package will give a push to sectors that will include land, labour, liquidity, and laws, among other areas. Also, it will accommodate the needs of various sectors including the cottage industry, MSME, labourers, middle class, and heavy industries. Set of bold reforms is the need of the hour to make India self-reliant claimed the Prime Minister. The changes will promote business, attract investment, and further strengthen the “Make in India” mission. According to the Prime Minister, tough situations India might face in the global platform along with the need to expand efficiency were kept in mind while preparing the economic package. Speaking about the impact of the pandemic, the Prime Minister stated “The crisis has taught us the importance of local manufacturing, market, and supply chains. All our demands during the crisis were met locally Now, it is time to be vocal about local products and help them become global.”

How can it be achieved?                  

The crisis that has dawned on the world has destroyed several economies. Major economic players of the world have been hit hard. Experienced people have been claiming that the ongoing worldwide lockdown would usher in sharp economic decline with certain companies being hit the worst. For India to take advantage of this situation, it is a necessity to incentivize its companies to help them cope up from the hard blow. The Economic Times has brought to light how this is an “opportunity in the making.” Several propositions have been given by The Economic Times regarding the strengthening of the economy. They are:

  1. The nation should prioritize investments in the sectors concerning local SMEs and MSMEs so that the nation does not have to rely on investments made by the MNCs.
  2. The electronics industry should be the centre of attention. SOPs should be offered to Indian manufacturers that would help them to “set up and scale-up facilities.”
  3. To compete on a global scale, innovation needs to be ramped up. The great demographic dividend can be used to “innovate and build an IPR regime.”
  4. Another area of focus should be the Defense Electronics and Telecom industry. The government needs to develop “policies to encourage Indian private sector companies” to invest in this particular sector as this one sector is dominated by PSUs and Foreign companies. Along with this, the government needs to restructure the defence manufacturing PSUs as they are scattered all over the nation. The Economic Times suggests that these labs should be paired up with SMEs and MSMEs.
  5. As the crisis might delay the rollout of the 5G networks worldwide, India should try to come up with an indigenous 5G telecom gear. The nation can use the USOF and TDB funds to invest in building solutions for 5G and rural broadband.

    A strategy should be developed by the Government along with a 5-year action plan which would be formulated based on advice by the companies working in the sector instead of the consultants.
  6. The nation’s focus needs to be towards IPR and platforms that generate and store data as data is considered as the “new oil.” It should be consumed and monetized to ramp up the economy. “India’s contribution to the global telecom supply chain is minuscule while being the 2nd largest telecom market in the world. The focus should shift towards the supply side from the demand side. India imports electronics worth 400B$ and this needs to change” stated The Economic Times.

Is it achievable?

In a talk about the PM’s address regarding Make in India and Aatmanirbhar Bharat, Mahindra and Mahindra MD Pawan Goenka stated “There are many factors. Some of it related to the industry itself, some of it relates to policies and some it related to the constraints that we have both internal as well as external and our competitiveness.” The lockdown has acted as a catalyst that renewed interest of the Government regarding manufacturing in India. “Furniture has an extremely high potential for export and currently India has very little furniture export. Leather and footwear also have tremendous export potential. Yet, we are still importing footwear,” said Mr Pawan Goenka. To ramp up the GDP of the nation about the share of manufacture, the MD opined, “clearly, the manufacturing growth in India has been less than what the country deserves. It is not something where you can flip the switch and the growth will happen. Several factors are responsible and the competitiveness of the industry is one of the major factors.” He clearly stated that the cost of the finished product needs to be in line with ‘competitiveness’ of the prices in the markets we are looking to take control of and this is applicable not only for China but also for other nations. The nation must look at the different finished prices of goods available on the market. “India has great potential to take manufacturing value addition to $1 trillion by 2025. Even though we have had a setback because of COVID- 19, I believe we can still do it,” said Goenka.

A prima facie overview of the economic scene of India would somehow support these “throwaway” claims, but after taking a good look at other variables one can be expected to arrive easily at the conclusion that such a jump is not at all plausible. Economists claimed that the devastating effects of the pandemic will be felt by all and manifest in the form of a decreased GDP in the year 2021. The dependency of the Indian economy on the consumption of private sector, investments by MNCs, and trade carried on by external factors will be immensely affected. The sector that takes up nearly 30% of the Indian market consists of the MSMEs. They might not be able to sustain themselves as a result of non-ending nationwide lockdown. Several ‘at risk’ business organizations might fall apart like a house of cards due to the disastrous economic situation left by the crisis after it disappears. Even if the economic growth follows a steady growth rate of 7.5% per year, $5 trillion economy by the nation can be achieved not by 2024-2025 but might be delayed by 2 years at least. The rate has, however, been based on a 4.5% inflation rate. The prevailing situation impedes any such measure that might help the economic situation and aid in the further realization of the dream of a self-reliant economy. However, the various variables one would take into account while coming to the answer regarding self- sufficiency of the economy should be understood to not be something ‘rock solid’ as the opportunities provided if used correctly might give shape to this dream.

                                                                                                                   Sagarika Mukhopadhyay