BORDER DISPUTE BETWEEN INDIA AND NEPAL

Historically, India’s relation with Nepal were much better than comparing to other countries in the world, not only can people cross each other’s border without visa and passport, but people of both the countries can work in each other country on daily basis also.

However, the relation between both the countries started becoming bitter in some few days/years. Recently Prime Minister of Nepal K.P. Sharma Oli accused that India is responsible for the COVID-19 cases in Nepal. He also claimed that India has occupied some areas of Nepal.

REASON BEHIND BORDER DISPUTE

A few days back Nepal has launched their new map in which they have added some new areas that were not there in the previous map of Nepal which is right now under the control of India.

It is the easternmost part of Uttarakhand. This area is spread around 300 square Kilometer and the north most part of this village/place is known as Limpiyadhura and the southernmost side is called Lipulekh pass.

Gunji is located at the south-west part and on the south Kalapani is located. Now, according to Nepal, these areas belong to them whereas India believes these areas as part of their territory.

The border dispute came into the controversy 6 months back due to 2 major reasons

  • In November 2019 when Modi’s government introduced the new map of India in which Kalapani was claimed under the territory of India which triggered the government of Nepal.
  • On 8th May 2020 Indian Defence minister Rajnath Singh inaugurated 80 km new road along with the India Nepal border through this disputed area until the lip less.

The purpose of this road was to help people on the Mansarovar Yatra as per claim the reason behind this is above the disputed area Tibet is located where Kailash Mansarovar is located, before the construction of this road

Yatris had to cover 5-day trek to the Mansarovar via Sikkim but this road will help Yatris to reach China’s border in a car followed by 2 days trek. But, Nepal government is upset on this construction.

As according to them Lipulekh comes under the region of Nepal and they believe if India wants to construct the road they should consulate with the Nepal government and workout the agreement before constructing on which Rajnath Singh Defence minister of India said that they have constructed the road in their territory for which they don’t need to the consulate with the government of Nepal.

But after some time the situation started began to go bad to worse when the youth of Nepal started protesting against the inauguration of the road on which army chief of India on 15th May 2020 said that Nepal was influenced by the China and after which Nepal government introduce new map and the entire dispute came in the limelight.

HISTORY OF THE DISPUTE

Story of border dispute begins 200 years ago in 1800 when India was ruled by the British. That time Britishers want to extend their territory and they want to conquer Nepal that time Nepal was ruled by the kingdom of Gorkha.

Battle took place between Britishers and Nepal in 1814 and this war is known as Anglo Nepalese war 1814 , war continued for 2 years and in 1816 treaty was signed between both Nepal and Britishers which is known as the treaty of sugar through this it was decided which part of the land will come under Britishers and which part of the land will be controlled by Nepal.

According to the treaty, Nepal lost its area of Sikkim and Darjeeling that area was ceded to the Britishers. The 2 rivers were used to define the kingdom of Nepal.

  • The western  boundary of Nepal would be along the Mahankali river
  • Eastern boundary would be along mech river
  • Even today eastern and western boundary defines the border between Nepal and India  the border run along with the river.

The problem arises at the western border of Nepal. If we go along with Mahakali river after some time it gets divide into 2. So the Britishers decided to choose the west part of the river to define the territory.

Therefore, if we see in the map drawn by Britishers the west river is used by them to show the boundary due to which Nepal got the region of Limpiyadhura. But after sometime Britishers realize that Limpiyadhura they given to the Nepal Kingdom will help Britishers in trading with China and in 30-40 years in 1860 the Britishers suddenly changed their map with a lot of cunning. Suddenly they claimed Limpiyadhura as their part of the map.

That time Nepal was not having any problem as for them that area was kind of useless so they allow Britishers to conquer that part and from 1860 to 1947 and after the Independence also part of Limpiyadhura was consider as the part of India. In 1962 both the countries show Lipulekh and Kalapani in their map.

The border dispute started in the year 1990 when Nepal became democratic country the government of Nepal in that time able to excess the old historical treaty of Sugauli and from that treaty there able to realize that Limpiyadhura comes under them.

In 2001 the prime minister of India Lt. Shree Atal Bihari Vajpayee and the prime minister of Nepal conducted the meeting upon the issue to solve the border dispute. But the agreement was left in the middle when India refuses to withdraw its army from there. In May 2015 India signed a trade agreement with China to use Limpiyadhura as a trade route and this was the point when Nepal and India’s relation began to bitter.

Still, we can see clashes and between both the countries and everything is changed between both the countries.

By- Anjali Sharma