Copywriting or Content Writing? What’s more powerful?

When we talk about Freelancing, two major roles pop up in mind instantly – content writer and copywriter. Many of them think they are the same. Some think copy is more powerful, and others believe the content.

The biggest difference between copywriting and content writing lies in its purpose. Copywriting is selling your brand; content writing is telling them about it while delivering valuable content. Copywriters write copy, and content writers write content.

What you actually need to know is that brands of all kinds, whether big or small, whether established or start-up, need copywriting and content writing to stay fresh and updated. So there’s plenty of opportunities for writers out there to try out and experiment, which works best for them. It is just a matter of seeing which one you have a knack for and sticking with that one along with improvising with the same.

Both are equivalent parts of the business industry. The difference lies in serving the purpose. Once you are clear with your “why” behind the purpose, your work life will become much easier.

Written by – Sushmitra Dahal

Is Freelance Industry that easy as shown?

If you want to make a mark in life, it is obvious that you will have to face hurdles and obstacles. Nothing great in this world can be without sacrifice. You have to sacrifice your leisure time for learning something new. You have to reduce spending time playing games to focus on your studies. Similarly, when it comes to your work life, you need to balance it with your personal life. The post-Covid period has witnessed a huge rise in entrepreneurship and the freelance industry. People became more aware than before, realizing the importance of e themselves and being independent. The freelance industry especially has seen a bigger boom as youngsters stepped into the industry to ace it with their skills.

Freelance means working for yourself, at any place, with the freedom to choose your time and work type. This is what attracted most people to kick-start their freelance journey. The ideal definition of freelancing showcased and displayed in the limelight is tempting and appealing. Once you get working in the industry, you will realize it is no less than any job, entrepreneurship, or business. You face ups and downs. At times you might not even lose clients. You may have to work day and night to finish off your tasks, meeting the deadlines, repurposed the drafts, and numerous changes required by your prospects.

“Work is worship” is what we all hear. We tend to assume that work is a typical 9-5 job, lavish corporate offices, or your own business. Work is work, no matter how small or big, and every work has hardships. Freelancing is another term used for freedom nowadays. Definitely, to unleash freedom, the obstacle in the way actually becomes your way, only when you are fair enough with yourself to push yourself up. Nothing looks the same when showcased. You have to step in and experience. These experiences make you bold enough to keep going throughout the journey to grow out, and that’s when you feel ‘easy’ is just meant for the display. What actually makes it easy is your willingness to work.

Written by – Sonali (© Copyright Protected)

PayPal to Shut Down Domestic Operations

Come April, PayPal, the American digital payment company will shut down domestic online payment operations. All payment operations taking within India will continue but will be not be executed by PayPal. It was the first choice of payment for many online companies: it was providing payment gateway on many online applications like Make My Trip, Book My Show, or Swiggy.
However, international payment operations, that Paypal executed will continue to be doing so. The company hopes that this move will increase their focus more on global sales for Indian businesses, and help India recover pre-Covid economic condition.
The company also said that it will still invest in product development through its Indian arm, to help small and medium enterprise merchants selling their products to international customers. This, a company’s spokesperson said, will have the most significant impact on India’s post-Covid economic recovery.
PayPal will stop it’s domestic payment operations April 1, 2021, onwards. For some time, PayPal has been facing tough competition from other online payment companies like Razorpay, PayU India, Zaakpay, and Paytm Payments Gateway. However, PayPal claimed that it had earned a quite significant revenue in the last quarter of 2020 and the year 2020 as a whole.

We are giving you a chance to learn and earn at our site – click here.

Written by – Himadri Paul

The Mandala Theory: A brief overview

Kautilya’s Arthashastra is considered to be one of the most important texts in the sphere of politics and diplomacy. This ancient Indian political thought was written around 325 BC and was published in Shama Shastri in the year of 1909. Chittaranjan Roy mentions that the book was divided into 32 divisions based on paragraphs. Moreover, the book has 15 adhikaranas (sections) with 180 prakaranas (sub-sections). Kautilya’s ideology makes it absolutely clear that he was probably not the first one to study the subjects and statecraft in such a detailed manner. Moreover, he goes on to mention that by compiling the thoughts of the previous masters with regards to the polity and adding his own thoughts, he developed his own ideology that saw protection and maintenance of sovereignty as one of the fundamental functions of the king. Also, protecting dharma and territory was the fundamental function of the state. Moreover, while talking about society, he was aware of the caste hierarchy and rampant social inequalities present in society. He subjected the Brahmanas to capital punishment for doing something wrong and allowed the Shudras to testify in court. Thereby, raising the social status of the Shudras. Kautilya also laid down strict rules with regards to children, women, workers, artisans, poor people, etc. of the society. This clearly shows how Arthashastra manages to reflect the complex realities of society. Kautilya’s Arthashastra manages to come up with scientific management of the statecraft and lays down ideas with regards to the management of the complex societal problems. 

One of the most splendid contributions to political thought by Kautilya has been the Mandala theory. This theory has given rise to questions from around the world about its relevance in the contemporary political scenario. Moreover, it is believed that the foundations of Mandala theory were laid down for the first time in the writings of Manu (a lawmaker) which soon formed the basis of India’s foreign policy (in ancient India). Roy suggests that evidence of the theory is available in the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. The fact that war was a part and parcel of life was realized by the Indian political writers and keep them under control several measures of maintaining a balance of power between states was suggested. This particular theory found in the writings of Smriti and Niti writers was based on this idea. Moreover, it is imperative to mention that a more comprehensive view of the theory was found in the writings of Kautilya thereby proving itself to be something that comes to the aid of even those belonging after Kautilya. 

According to Kautilya, a king who understands the worth of diplomacy can emerge as the conqueror of the world. The basic premise of his Mandala theory concentrates on the actions of the Vijighisu (the primary king), his friends, and his a friend’s friend. These emperors form the three primary kings constituting circles of the state. Roy mentions that each of these kings contains the five elements of sovereignty whereas a circle of states consists of eighteen elements. Moreover, he made clear the fact that every immediate neighbour was the enemy of Vijighisu or the conqueror should be aware and wary of the actions of such a date. In accordance with this calculation, the state after the enemy would naturally be an ally of the conqueror (enemy’s enemy a friend). It also should be mentioned that  Kautilya divided the Vijighusi’s kingdom into front and rear. 

The Vijighisu: Kautilya considers him to be the conqueror or the king who holds the central position. Such a king must have the ambition to go on conquest and possess the potential to grow. However, it must be noted that there can be n number of Vijighisu if they possess the strength and the potential of one as prescribed by Kautilya. 

The main elements of the Mandala theory regarding kingdoms in front of the Vijighisu are:-

  • The Ari: The immediate neighbour is the Ari or the Enemy. As mentioned above, every immediate neighbour is considered the Enemy. The Ari is the Enemy in the front.
  • The Mitra: The King after the Ari is the Mitra or the friend. According to Kautilya, the enemy’s enemy is the ally. Hence, this emperor is an ally of the Vijighisu.
  • The Ari Mitra: This is the ally of the Enemy and the Enemy of the Friend. Thus, naturally, this emperor is also the enemy of the Vijighisu.
  • The Mitra Mitra: The state adjacent to Ari Mitra is the Mitra Mitra. This state is the friend of both Mitra and the Vijighisu. However, it is the enemy of Ari Mitra and Ari
  • The Ari Mitra Mitra: The kingdom is a natural enemy of the Vijighisu and is aligned with its enemies. 

Hence, it must be noted that the Vijighisu, Mitra, Mitra Mitra are allies; whereas the Ari, Ari Mitra, and the Ari Mitra Mitra are allies and enemies of the Vijighisu

The main elements of the Mandala theory regarding kingdoms in the rear of the Vijighisu are:-

  • The immediate neighbour is the Paarshnigraaha. This the enemy in the rear of the Vijighisu.
  • The ally in the rear of Vijighisu is known as the Akranda
  • The ally of the rearward enemy is the Paarshnigraahasara
  • The ally of the rearward ally is the Akrandasara

Hence, in the rear, we have the Paarshnigraaha and the Paarshnigraahasara as the enemy; whereas the Akranda and the Akrandasara are the allies. 

Apart from this, there are two other kings, namely, the Madhyama who is the indifferent one and the intermediary; and the Udaasina who is neutral. 

  • The Madhyama king is said to occupy a position of strength on the basis of which it can choose to either help the Vijighisu or his enemy Ari or not help at all. Thus, this king occupies a very important position in Kautilya’s Mandala. Also, this king lies close to both. 
  • The Udaasina lies beyond the territory of the kings. This kingdom is powerful enough to help the conqueror, the enemy, the Madhyama together or individually. This kingdom can also resist each one of them. 

Moreover, to enhance ones political foothold, Kautilya prescribed 6 methods off foreign policy, namely, Sandhi, Vigraha, Asana, Yana, Samsraya, and Dvadibhava

Taking into consideration the various aspects presented by Kautilya with regards to polity, it can be said that this theory is still relevant in the sphere of International Relations and politics. Developing a value-free realist model regarding politics much earlier than Machiavelli or any other scholar of the sort, his work brought forward the sheer brilliance and intelligence with which politics was observed. Although his idea can be found in some form or the other in modern-day diplomacy and politics, several scholars have pointed out some of the disadvantages of the theory. 

  • Firstly, scholars have pointed out that his concept of how one’s immediate neighbour is the enemy may not be always true depending on the contemporary situation. 
  • Secondly, his writings are ambiguous with regards to Udaasina and Madhyama. Although these kings have been given a detailed description, their role in the political process has received little to no attention. 
  • Thirdly, Kautilya’s model has been claimed to be of self-destructive nature. This theory explains how the king will embark on a never-ending military journey and will be always embroiled in conflict. Hence, equilibrium is greatly affected. 
  • Finally, this system lacks a stabilizing force. Thus, it stands in direct confrontation with the evolutionary theory. 

However, the attention to the concept of “external” sovereignty makes the theory a relevant part of politics. Its pragmatic outlook and importance of geography prove to be something that might be very helpful in contemporary times. 


The graph of being covid19 affected goes up abruptly. Meanwhile, the novel coronavirus has crippled the world economy. Indian finance has been suffering since the beginning as all other third world countries. RBI also refused to give the projection. Small businesses like street shops have been closed due to worldwide lockdown. Standing in such a miserable condition, e-commerce can be a new hope in economical arena.


E-commerce is derived from electronic commerce which refers to the purchasing and selling of products or transferring data and money by using the electronic network, primarily the internet. E-commerce markets are growing at noticeable rates. The online market is expected to grow by 56% in the last 5 years.


Coronavirus has disrupted the supply chain management system globally. E-commerce services are also facing troubles due to lockdown and they are not able to deliver products. Security issues forced some companies to reduce the number of employees which called for horrible unemployment.

Gyms, shopping malls, cinema halls, restaurants in many cities are shutting until further notice.

As people have maintained social distancing as a way to slow down the rapid spread of coronavirus, there would be an increase in online shopping as they turn to e-commerce to purchase the items.

A survey by Engine found that people are spending on 10-30% more online.

Devanshu Dutta, Chief Executive of Third Eyesight, said, “The lockdown has certainly provided e-commerce a unique environment to expand its footprint, but the first several weeks saw them falter due to lack of product availability as well as breaks in supply chain.”


Source: Common thread collective

The development comes even as Amazon said last month that they saw the “biggest impact” of the coronavirus outbreak in India amongst the international markets for the world wide lockdown. The volume of online transactions compared to the same period last year increased by 74%.


The strong and steady growth of internet users and spreading awareness regarding online shopping, low price due to bulk purchase, and so on. Besides, buying medical products like surgical masks, hand sanitizers are being purchased far faster than before pandemic.

According to data from Nielsen, items like hygienic and medical mask sales are up by more than 30%. Pandemic has also changed the entire scenario in other e-commerce services like grocery and subscription services. Apart from all these essentials, digital streaming like Netflix, Amazon is gaining enormous subscribers in this lockdown.

Moreover, social distancing and lockdown are further expected to make ahead way towards online shopping which contributes to the growth of global e-commerce.


While brick and mortar retail is challenged under a new practice consumer behavior, the outbreak is fetching a new mass to e-commerce. It should boost the market across the region for a prolonged period, with strong development through 2025 providing several opportunities for new entrepreneurs and business leaders to launch new products and services.

But nothing is flawless. There are lots of online sites that have originated during this time and people are using as these are fulfilling their needs without a complication. But there is still a question about the authenticity of these sites. The services would be better in the near future if the hazards like app or site crashes can be mitigated.