The term organic farming refers to farming methods using only biofertilizers, biopesticides, for growing traditional, heirloom, high-yielding, and even genetically-modified seeds. Organic farming is at its nascent stage in India, where a few farms have taken up the new initiative to make food crops healthy. Despite being a healthier alternative, organic farming poses substantial challenges to farmers, and may never replace chemical fertilizers and pesticides throughout the country.
Sikkim is currently the only state in India whose agriculture is 100% organic. Only 4 other states – Meghalaya, Mizoram, Uttarakhand and Goa have more than 10% of the land under organic farming. Overall, the whole country has only 2% of land under organic cultivation. The top 3 states by areas under organic farming – Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Maharashtra constitute more than half the total area for organic farming.
Though many states of India have their own organic farming policies, most of them are not looking to meet their targets. Andhra Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Mizoram, Kerala, Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh have desired to become fully organic farming states in coming years. Karnataka, Maharashtra and Rajasthan have their own policies for organic farming. However, none have made it as far as Sikkim. Despite its small area, India has the highest number of organic farmers in the world.
Organic farming in India has the potential to become popular in hilly areas, and areas of large ecological diversity. This is because chemical fertilizers and pesticides can get washed away by rain water to rivers, lakes and ponds, polluting them, causing diseases to man and the wild. Eutrophication still possesses major problems across rural India. This is predominant in the hills as run-off water in the hills easily reach the plains and subsequently the rivers. It also poses a hazard to pisciculture as chemical fertilizers and pesticides kill fish and aquatic life.
However, despite its advantages, the drawbacks are keeping a check on the growth of organic farming in India. Firstly, productivity is low at around 60-75% of the yield of conventional agriculture. Secondly, India has a huge middle and low income class population which cannot afford an increase in prices for daily food items and groceries. Thirdly, it would be impossible to feed the huge population of India though its own produce and India would then need to import more food crops to avoid a famine. Lastly, organic food is healthier is a myth, though organic food is environment friendly.
We can have organic farms where environment protection is our top priority. The hilly states, which have opted for organic farming policy should implement them as soon as possible with or without assistance from the Centre. However, for the bulk of the produce, we still require it to be dependent on conventional agriculture, to sustain the huge demand to feed the overgrowing population of India.
Most of India is rural, where farmers depend on agriculture and pisciculture for their livelihood. The most important factor regulating the success of crop growing or fishing is rainfall. As more than 80% of the country’s rainfall occurs during the monsoon season, a significant chunk of the Indian economy depends on how the monsoon performs in a year. In this article, let’s look at how monsoon affects the Indian economy that generates a lot of revenue from agriculture and pisciculture.
Monsoon is a seasonal wind pattern that brings in clouds and rain to the Indian subcontinent, which is otherwise quite dry. Monsoons arrive in mainland India from the Indian Ocean around June 1 each year. Kerala is the first state in India to witness the arrival of monsoon. However, monsoons arrive earlier in the Andaman and Nicobar islands around May 21. Monsoon gradually covers southern states of India before arriving in north-east India. The last point to be covered by the monsoon lies in western Rajasthan, which is usually complete in the first week of July. This season is important for kharif or summer crops, which require a lot of rainfall. September 17 onwards, monsoon starts withdrawing from west Rajasthan and gradually withdraws from the entire country within a month and a half and is replaced by north-east monsoons, which are similar to trade winds, arriving on October 20. During autumn, the north-east monsoon fails to bring rainfall over India except Tamil Nadu and southern parts of Andhra Pradesh, where it is an important rainy season. The winter is marked by dry weather over most parts of the country except northern parts of India, especially the western Himalayan region, where western disturbances bring some rain. This winter rain is important for rabi or winter crops that require scanty rainfall. The spring and summer are marked by thunderstorms and sudden wind gusts usually occurring in the afternoon. They are called kalbaisakhi in West Bengal, Bordoishila in Assam, and mango showers and coffee showers in Kerala and Karnataka. The last two names suggest that they help in the ripening of mango and coffee crops, respectively.
The late and weak arrival of monsoon is not a good sign for farmers. Kharif crops are shown in April and May, such that their requirement of rainfall comes in June. Even 10 days late arrival of monsoon causes significant loss of productivity. Similarly, late withdrawal also causes excessive rain that damages drought-resistant crops, especially in Rajasthan, where monsoons are increasingly withdrawing late, by as far as one month. North-east monsoons are also arriving late, becoming inconsistent, and irregular. Cyclones and depressions have shown an increasing trend of developing both pre-monsoon and post-monsoon. Excessive rainfall caused by a cyclonic storm or depression also causes widespread damage to crops. India has, over the years, experienced drought and flood. This is of particular concern nowadays, as both drought and flood are occurring simultaneously in different parts of the country, damaging crops all around the country. Early rain, especially in winter and spring, is equally damaging for fruit production. Kashmiri apple is harvested in November, and heavy snow early for the season before apples are picked causes premature rotting. Similarly, cyclones or gusty winds in spring or early summer cause the falling of unripened mangoes, decreasing the availability of ripened mangoes.
Pisciculture of seasonal fishes is affected by the change in monsoon patterns. Hilsa, the prized fish from West Bengal, is best caught during the early monsoon stage when Hilsa fishes migrate from deep sea and reach inland freshwater rivers. Hilsa catch in West Bengal has lowered considerably due to weak monsoon rains during June and July. Cloudy sky, availability of freshwater in river estuaries, and calm water with drizzle are some factors provoking Hilsa to reach estuaries for their breeding. The absence of such conditions, especially in the Ganges delta, is causing a reduction in Hilsa catch. The extended rainy season in Maharashtra and Goa causes the Arabian Sea to remain warm in October and November, thus hampering the migration of fishes from warm to cool waters. It resulted in a 50% decline of fish catch in both states, while there is a marginal decline of fish catch in other states along the west coast. The effect of weakened north-east monsoon is seen in the steep decline of inland fish production of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh. Frequent cyclones cause the inability of fishers to reach deep sea for fishing. Reduction of fishing days can severely hinder the production of seasonal fishes, which are caught only at a particular season each year. However, unlike farmers, weather-hit fishers are not given compensation as per the latest laws of the Government.
Erratic rainfall has also impacted sericulture, floriculture, and apiculture in India. Sericulture is the rearing of the silkworm, floriculture is the term for large-scale cultivation of flowers, and apiculture is another word for beekeeping. While sericulture and floriculture are affected by bleak monsoon rains, apiculture is affected during continuous heavy rain for long periods. The rearing of silkworms has been increasingly affected by less summer and early monsoon rains, which are getting weaker. Both in Maharastra and Assam, March-July rains have reduced significantly, causing the disappearance of the silkworm. Silkworms prefer a cool climate with moderate humid conditions and water availability. Less rain and more sunlight mean hot weather during summer with a fall in humidity and water levels. A drop in late and post-monsoon rainfall affects flower production as most of the flowers are planted during September-November. This trend is seen in the east coast of the country, which usually gets late bursts of monsoon rains. The late bursts are now being replaced by deadly cyclones that do more harm to flowering plants than good. The Number of beehives has reduced significantly in the Nashik region of Maharashtra and in some other parts where moringa is cultivated. This reduction is attributed to excessive rainfall in short periods followed by floods.
Let us now look at some examples. In 2019, excessive monsoon rain followed by flooding caused significant damage to onion crops growing in Maharashtra and Gujarat. This led to a severe onion crisis in the country when the price of onions skyrocketed to more than 200%. Lower potato production in Uttar Pradesh, India’s biggest potato growing region, caused a more than 40% rise in potato prices last year. Though 40% may seem very less, it is a considerable margin for middle and lower-income class people for whom potato is a staple. Apple production was particularly damaged in the 2019 November snowfall in Jammu and Kashmir, which was declared a state disaster. Cyclone Amphan damaged mango trees and caused the premature fall of mangoes in West Bengal in 2020. Cyclone Tauktae wreaked havoc for fishers of Veraval in Gujarat, which accounted for 60% of Gujarat’s fish catch. The water crisis in big cities is also a major problem that needs to be encountered. The 2019 Chennai water crisis was due to poor north-east monsoon rains, while the 2020 Shimla water crisis was attributed to a snow-free winter in Himachal. We have already witnessed once-in-a-century floods in Kerala in 2018 and the most damaging 2013 Uttarakhand floods. The major crop-belt in eastern Maharashtra, north Karnataka, Telangana, interior Andhra Pradesh are receiving alternate years of flood and drought, hampering crop productivity.
India has witnessed its own ways of tackling such natural calamities. Over thousands of years, Indians have found a way to stand beside others and keep the production sustainable for the future. We have seen how water trains have moved from one place to another to curb water crises in any area. We have seen how flood monitoring techniques and accurate forecasts have helped farmers and fishers take preventive measures beforehand. In all natural disaster crises, we should stand beside others and help mitigate the situation. Values and humanity are the keys to a developed and prosperous nation.
On 1st, August 2020 P.M Narendra Modi announced the launch of the Agriculture Infrastructure Scheme through video conference.
This scheme consists of 1 lakh crore of an agriculture infrastructure fund, handing over around 1,000 crores to across 2,200 farmer societies. Also, Prime Minister transferred 17,000 crores to PM-Kisan scheme for 8.5 crore framers as there 6th instalment of PM- Kisan scheme.
Basically, the new scheme has been launched to improve the agriculture sector as a large number of population work under this sector and agriculture infrastructure scheme will help agri– entrepreneurs, startups, Agri- tech players, and farmer groups for post-harvest management and nurturing farmer assets
The agriculture infrastructure fund will be for 10-year duration till 2029. Under this, every financial body will help farmers and people related to the agriculture sector, by giving loan from medium to long term debt for post-harvest management and other agriculture activity.
According to the guideline of the agricultural infrastructure, fund up to ₹ 2 crores will be spent with 3% interest and the loan will disburse with the sanction of ₹ 10,000 in 2020-21 to ₹ 30,000 in next three years.
This will help farmers and agriculturists in the startups and post-harvest management will also be beneficial for the development of our country.
Already 11 out of 12 public sector banks agreed and signed the memorandum of agreement with the Agriculture Ministry.
During the launch, PM Modi interacted with the farmers of Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh as mainly this scheme is for them and also informed them about the agriculture infrastructure fund. Not only this but also requested them to not to use chemical fertilizers for improvement in soil.
This scheme might help farmers of India and stable the economy.