Medieval Cities of Europe You can Visit This Summer

Despite being devastated by successive wars, Europe has led the world to modern development. However, there are many cities in Europe, which were never affected by war, and have never lost their medieval charm.

Summer is the best time to visit any place in Europe, and it is also the best time to see these wonderful fairytale cities in their true splendour. Let us look at the cities that even today are the best examples of how the Medieval World was like in Europe.

Rothenburg :

Rothenburg in Germany is like a fairy tale medieval town even today. This south German town has escaped destruction during both the World Wars, and is now a fairy tale land for the tourists.

Brudges :

Brudges of Belgium and its waterway canals are a major tourist attraction all over the world. The city has modernised, with a modern transport system, yet maintains the slow-paced medieval charm in its waterways that crisscrosses throughout the city. Not to forget, the medieval architecture of its buildings is a true wonder.

Lviv :

This eastern European town in Ukraine, which escaped demolition throughout history is under constant threat of bombardment in the ongoing Ukraine-Russian war. Keeping that aside, Lviv has maintained its medieval charm and culture which exists in eastern Europe even to this day.

Lucerne :

This medieval city of Switzerland lies on the edge of Lake Lucerne at the backdrop of the Alps mountain. Its wooden bridge over Lake Lucerne is one of the oldest in the world. The city’s orientation makes it suitable to reach most destinations by a boat, which will take less time than road transport.

Rhodes :

This Greek town lies in a small island off the coast of Turkey in the Mediterranean Sea. Rhodes contains medieval castles, walkway roads, beaches and coves, which will make you feel that walking though Rhodes is better than riding a car.

Dubrovnik :

This is another sea-side city, which is also a major port in the Adriatic coast. This south Croatian city is known for its distinctive Old Town, surrounded by massive stone walls, completed in the 16th century.

Bologna :

Bologna is one of those medieval north Italian cities, where the Renaissance started. Bologna is also home to the oldest continuously operated University in the Western World. Today, the historic city centre is a major tourist attraction, and influences cuisine and culture of the world.

Carcassonne :

This is a hilltop town, famous for its medieval citadel, La Cite, surrounded by numerous watchtowers and double-walled fortifications. Going here, you will get a perfect example of how the city dwellers built and defended their cities in the middle ages.

Torun :

Torun is one of the rare cities of Poland which has till date maintained its Old World Charm. This city, by the Vistula river, is known for gingerbread making, which dates back more than a millennium.

Riga :

Set on the Baltic Sea, the Latvian capital of Riga is also a UNESCO World Heritage site. Its museums, medieval city centre, and the gulf all together contributes to the amazing beauty this city has.

Prague :

The capital of Czechia, Prague is one of the most magnificent medieval cities in the world. Since medieval times Prague has been known for its sprawling market square, its rich culture and roadside music, its modern trams, its medieval castles, and medieval bridges across the Vltava river. Its iconic half-timbered houses, decorated doors and windows, cobbled-stone roads and spires of cathedrals make it one of the prettiest cities in the world.

Edinburgh :

Edinburgh, one of the oldest cities in the UK, is today the capital of Scotland. Its Medieval Old Town and Georgian New Town are both part of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Edinburgh Castle and a walk through the city centre will take you to a city, having both old charms and modern vives.

Tallinn :

The capital of Estonia, Tallinn is also one of most picturesque cities in the world. Tallinn’s Old Town, the Baltic Sea and the white-orange colour contrast of buildings, will take you to a fairyland. Tallinn’s access to the Baltic Sea means you can hop on a ferry and visit Helsinki, Riga, St Petersburg, or Stockholm at a short notice.

Written by – Himadri Paul

Picture source – Internet

How stereotypes affect people

Assumptions, we all make them. They help us. Yes, they do. But what happens when you assume someone’s opinions, their sexual orientation, their ability to do something, their financial status, and even their morals? Stereotypes are overgeneralized ideas of what a certain group of individuals should have in common. By stereotyping, we “assume” what a person of a certain group should or should not have as their characteristics.

There have been multiple studies that show how a stereotype can change a person’s behavior, their response to a situation, and even self-image. Stereotypes have undesirable effects on our personality development and the types of activities we do, as well as the way we live and the careers we choose.

There was a study done by Katz and Braly (1933) on Racial Stereotyping. They selected a group of people and gave them a list of characteristics that the group had to assign to a particular type of individual(s), who were differentiated based on their race. The study showed that most of the traits that indicated active lifestyle, hardworking and ambitious behaviors were assigned to white Americans. The characters that implied laziness and unprogressive behaviors were assigned to the individuals who were of African American race. In a related study, when individuals facing performance threat were given a test, it was shown that African American participants performed less well than their White American counterparts. According to Steele, stereotype threat generates “spotlight anxiety” (Steele & Aronson, 1995, p. 809), which causes emotional distress, “vigilant worry,” and “attributional ambiguity,” which can then lead to an underwhelming performance under stress situations.

In a similar study, two groups of women were selected. One group was then reminded of their Asian descent, and another was reminded of them being female, and the one reminded of their descent performed way better than the other one. The reason that came up the most for the result was stereotypical bias.

Stereotypes not only try to strip people of their individuality but also try to mold them into someone they are not. This type of bias, when applied to children, can affect their self-expression, academic success, body image, emotional health, etc. Kids learn from the people that surround them. Forcing young boys to be emotionally unavailable and young girls to be caregivers is something that when they take in their adult life causes a lot of distress not only on an individual level but also massively on a societal level. If they are taught to behave like a stereotype, they can sometimes grow up to not accept other people who do not act in the same way that they do. These things are also a big reason for the hate crimes that a specific group experiences due to stereotypical bias, whether due to their race, ethnic background, sexual orientation, etc.

Media also has a big role in feeding into these stereotypes that lead us to believe that this is the way of life. However, offering education free of stereotypes does not mean taking away all “boys’ toys” and “girls’ toys,” such as dolls or fire trucks. Rather, it means actively encouraging children to make choices usually associated with the other gender. Children should be taught that someone’s way of talking does not describe their sexual orientation. Someone’s sexual orientation or race does not define their ideologies. Everyone deserves a chance to be someone that they want to be without fear of being judged or experiencing hate for who they are, especially when they can’t change it.

Written by – Chaarvi Dwivedi